noun, f., n-decl., 19 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 18.07.2011 08:58

Old-English: mæddre, mædere, mæderu, mædre, medder, medere,


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References Last Update: 16.06.2022 05:02

  • →feld-mædere;
  • mæd-land;
  • mæd-mæwect;
  • mæd-splott;
  • mædere-cíþ;
  • mærædenn;
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Meaning Last Update: 01.02.2010 11:41

  • A: plant: foreign "Formerly grown in England and still occurs as a casual." (Clapham 1956,786).
    Rubia tinctorum L., madder, Echte Färberröte
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Comment Last Update: 18.07.2011 08:26

  • Comment on (A): Rubia tinctorum L., madder, Echte Färberröte

    The OE lemma can also denote other dyeing plants but the context of the occurrences (esp. LB) suggests R. tinctorum. The L lemmata RUBIA, SANDIX (→wād) and UERMICULUS (→corn-wurma) denote dyeing plants or a dye. ANCHORIUM, ANCHORUM are not clear but in my opinion the form is related to ANCHUSA (Alkanna tinctoria Tausch, alkanet, Schminkwurz) which is a dyeing plant; its root produces red dye. Lindheim's suggestion that it is related to ANCORA ('anchor, Anker') seems doubtful (with reference to Krapp, note on Dur 31: because of the hooked prickles). According to Fischer (2001,107) and André (1985, s.v.) GRIAS is unclear[1], Lindheim (note on 191) and Stracke (L index) suspect an erroneous Gk γύης, 'plough handle, Pflugsterz' (again referring to the hooked prickles); Hunt (1989,131) also suggests R. tinctorum. The plant depicted in the L HA (Howald / Sigerist 1927, ch. L) does slightly resemble a plough but it does definitely not depict R. tinctorium. UENERIA (→bēo-wyrt, →smeru-wyrt, →spere-wyrt) does not suit any of the possible dyeing plants. One explanation for this gloss could be Laud 1499 VENERIA .I. edre UEL smerewurt, in which edre probably stands for æddre 'vein, Ader' (cf. →ǣdre). It is likely that the original gloss UENERIA æddre was changed into mæddre by the glossator.

    Hankins (1992,235) identifies the plant as Rubia peregrina L., the native Rubia species. Esposito (2002,233) - probably too restrictive - suggests: "The word in OE. and ON. could not originally have denoted the exotic Rubia, but probably belonged to various species of the allied genera Asperula and Galium, some of which are still used as substitutes for madder. "

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Occurrences Last Update: 22.11.2010 06:53

  • AldVGo, 5091 SANDIX HERBA SANDIX mædere .I. IACINCTO[2]
  • AldVNa, 1,5209 SANDIX mædere
  • AldVNa, 2,436 SANDIX .I. IACINCTO[3] mædere, wad
  • AldVNa, 8,345 SANDIX mædre
  • AntFö, 141,239 UERMICULI mæddre
  • AntK, 111,4 RUBIA mæddre
  • Br,WW, 297,9 ANCHORUM mædere
  • Br,WW, 299,29 UENERIA mædere
  • C 31.14, AldV, Logeman, Anglia 13, 36/266 SANDIX mædre
  • C 36, Gough S.276 GRIAS medder
  • C 96.1, Na 35, 4 UERMICULO wealhbasu ł mædre
  • Dur, 191 GRYAS medere
  • Dur, 31 ANCHORIUM medere
  • HA, LI, 154/11 nsg Mædere
  • HA, LI, 154/12f asg þe man GRYAS 7 oþrum naman mædere nemneþ
  • HA, LI, 24/19 nsg GRYAS ƀ is mæderu[4]
  • Laud, 1289 RVBIA medere
  • Laud, 728 GRIAS medere. wrette
  • LB, 80/38[5] nsg reade hofe 7 mædere
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Image Last Update: 18.07.2011 08:58

Rubia tinctorum L., madder, Echte Färberröte


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

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Research Literature

AldVGo: Goossens, Louis. The Old English Glosses of 'MS. Brussels, Royal Library 1650'. (Aldhelm's De Laudibus Virginitatis) Edited with an introduction, notes and indexes. Klasse der Letteren. Verhandelingen. 36,74. Brussels: Paleis der Academien, 1974.
AldVNa: Napier, Arthur Sampson. Old English Glosses. Anecdota Oxoniensia, Mediaeval and Modern Series. 11. Reprint of Oxford, Clarendon Press 1900. Hildesheim: Olms, 1969.
AldV: Logeman, Henri. "New Aldhelm Glosses." Anglia 13 (1891): 26-41.
AntFö: Förster, Max. "Die altenglische Glossenhandschrift Plantinus 32 (Antwerpen) und Additional 32246 (London)." Anglia 41 (1917): 94-161.
AntK: Kindschi, Lowell. The Latin-Old English Glossaries in Planton-Moretus Manuscript 43 and British Museum Manuscript Additional 32,246. Unpubl. diss. Stanford University: 1955.
Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
André, Jacques. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Société d'édition 'les belles lettres', 1985.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Bierbaumer, Peter. "Zu J.V. Goughs Ausgabe einiger altenglischer Glossen." Anglia 95, 1/2 (1977): 115-121.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Esposito, Anthony. "Medieval Plant-Names in the _Oxford English Dictionary_." In: _From Earth to Art. The Many Aspects of the Plant-World in Anglo-Saxon England._ Proceedings of the First ASPNS Symposium, University of Glasgow, 5-7 April 2000. ed. by Carole Biggam, Costerus, 148. Amsterdam - New York: Rodopi, 2003. 237-248.
Fischer, Hermann. Mittelalterliche Pflanzenkunde. Geschichte der Wissenschaften. Geschichte der Botanik II. Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1929. München: 2001.
Gough, J. V. (ed.). "Some Old English Glosses." Anglia 92 (1974): 273-290.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Hunt, Tony. Plant Names of Mediaeval England. Cambridge: Brewer, 1989.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. Old English Glosses. MLA General Series.16. Repr. New York: 1971.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 585.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius C iii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 6258b.
MS Salibury, Cathedral, 38.
MS London, British Library, Royal 5 E.xi.
MS London, British Library, Royal 6
MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1650.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Digby 146.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Ashmole 1431.
MS Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Museum, 47.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Nero E.i vol.1.
MS London, British Library, Add. 32246.
MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1828-30.
MS Durham, Cathedral, Hunter 100.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Laud Misc. 567.
Napier, Arthur Sampson. "Collation der altenglischen Aldhelmglossen des Codex 38 der Kathedralbibliothek zu Salisbury." Anglia 15 (1893): 204-209.
Van Arsdall, Anne. Medieval Herbal Remedies. Illustrations by Robby Poore. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.
Wright, Cyril E. (ed.). Bald's Leechbook. Early English manuscripts in facsimile. 5. Kopenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1955.

Hunger"s identifikation (1935,167) is meaningless, because it seems to relate to Cockayne"s interpretation (1951, 337) of the name mædere.


L HYACINTHINUS = "hyacinth colored, hyazintenfarbig"; cf. wǣden, s.v. wād.


L HYACINTHINUS = "hyacinth colored, hyazintenfarbig"; cf. wǣden, s.v. wād.


MSS B, H: mædere.


This occurrence should be read: reade hofe 7 reade mædere.