Bellis_perennis

bān-wyrt

noun, f., i-decl., 24 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 08.11.2011 10:15

Old-English: banewyrt, banvyrt, banwert, banwyrt, banwurt,

Latin (Machine generated): CENTAUREA MINOR, CONSOLDA, FILA AUROSA, FILIA AURISA, SWIGE, UIOLA AUROSA ET UIOLA PURPUREA, VIOLA, [UIO]LA AUROSA,

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Reference Last Update: 25.09.2020 14:30

Meanings Last Update: 05.06.2009 14:58

  • A: plant: native
    Bellis perennis L., daisy, Gänseblümchen
  • B: plant: native
    Centaurium erythraea Rafn., common centaury, Echtes Tausendgüldenkraut
  • C: plant: native
    Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell
  • D: plant
    -, violet, some kind of ~, or a similar plant, Veilchen-Art oder eine ähnliche Pflanze
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Comments Last Update: 08.11.2011 10:34

  • Comment on (A): Bellis perennis L., daisy, Gänseblümchen

    The various attempts at identifying OE bānwyrt date from several different glosses and a description in HA, CLXV that does not match the glossary evidence. Bellis perennis can be deduced from ME evidence (also cf. Hunt 1989, s.v. CONSOLIDA, CONSOLIDA MEDIA, CONSOLIDA MINOR). This is supported through the fact that the LB seems to differentiate between a 'major and minor bone-wort' as this reference indicates: sio greate banwyrt (LB, 96/10). In the LB bānwyrt is used in two remedies for fractures: in 8/3-8 and 21/16ff (here the only herbal ingredient). Also cf. Brodin (1950,148): "CONSOLIDA MINOR is an herbe þat men clepe þe lesse dayeseye ar bryswort ar bonwourtis" and (Brodin 1950,260) "CONSOLIDA MINOR = Bel­lis perennis." Also cf. Pritzel (1882,55): "Bellis perennis L. mittelalt. CONSOLIDA MINOR oder MINIMA [...] klein Beinwellen". Also cf. →dæges-ēage. If the identification is not B. perennis, Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell has to be preferred. Deegan (1988,225) accepts B. perennis as one possible identification; also cf. our meaning D.

    The L name CONSOLIDA (L, SOLIDUS, 'dense, consolitated; dicht, fest') equates the Gk σύμφυτο (from συμφύειν 'grow together, zusammenwachsen'), which in Antiquity denotes several plants that aid the healing of bone fractures (cf. Hegi 1906,V, 2220).

  • Comment on (B): Centaurium erythraea Rafn., common centaury, Echtes Tausendgüldenkraut

    For the gloss AntK 119,16 an identification with C. erythraea is possible, especially as a plant with multi-blossom florescenc is indicated. In the LB this identification can be ruled out because definitely identified OE names denoting C. erythraea (cf. →centaurie, →eorþ-gealla) occur along with bānwyrt in several recepies (e.g. 8/10: centaurian, 21/15: eorþgeallan).

  • Comment on (C): Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell

    CONSOLIDA and CONSOLIDA MAIOR are generally identifyed with S. officinale. Cf. Lindheim (1941,128) and the respective note; also cf. Brodin (1950,147): "CONSOLIDA MAIOR is an herbe men clepe dayessye or conforye" and (Brodin 1950,260: CONSOLIDA MAIOR = Symphytum officinale).

  • Comment on (D): -, violet, some kind of ~, or a similar plant, Veilchen-Art oder eine ähnliche Pflanze

    The source for HA, CLXV is Dioscorides III,138 (Berendes 1902,345), where he describes Erysimum cheiri (L.) Crantz, wallflower, Goldlack (= UIOLA AUROSA, cf. André 1985, s.v. VIOLA) and Matthiola incana (L.) R.Br., hoary stock, Garten-Levkoje (= UIOLA PURPUREA, cf. André, s.v. VIOLA), both not native to England.[1]

    For L VIOLA cf. Lindheim (1941,334 and n.): "Das lat. VIOLA be­zeichnet nicht nur unser 'Veilchen', sondern eine ganze Anzahl duftender Blumen." (L VIOLA not only denotes 'viola', but a broad range of fragrant flowers.) Also cf. Förster (1917,138, n.2) and Laud 1506 including Stracke's note. De Vriend (1984,324) wrongly refers to Bierbaumer (1976, s.v.; Viola tricolor L.) and to Cockayne (Viola lutea L.), which is also suggested by Olds (1984,174). Hankins (1992, 220) has Erysimum cheiri (L.) Crantz, following Storms (1948,320) but also provides an identification of her own (1992,98): Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (boneset, Durchwachsener Wasserdost). She bases this identification on the modern plant name 'boneset' and its frequent use in the 18th century; unfortunately this plant is native to North America (Zander 2008,392). Deegan (1988,225) suggests Viola tricolor L., heart's ease, wild pansy (Gewöhnliches Wildes Stiefmütterschen) and our meaing A. D'Aronco (1998,54) prefers Erysimum cheiri (L.) Crantz for the HA entry; Van Arsdall (2002,221) wrongly refers to Bierbaumer (cf. deVriend 1984,324). Pollington (2000,103) suggests "possibly violet" or 'small knapweed' (Centaurea L., Flockenblume), follwing Clark Hall. Pettit (2001,vol.2,XXXIV,154) refers to Hunt and suggests the identification of the DOE: 'wild (?or mountain) pansy' but in his glossary (2001,I,215) he also provides the identification '(?) Ruscus aculeatus L., butcher's broom (Stacheliger Mäusedorn)' along with all of our identifications but gives no detailed explanation.

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Occurrences Last Update: 07.10.2010 06:55

  • AntK, 119,16 CENTAUREA MINOR banwyrt
  • Br,WW, 299,4 SWIGE[2] banwyrt
  • Br,WW, 300,1 UIOLA AUROSA ET UIOLA PURPUREA banwyrt
  • C 36, Gough, S.279 und Bierbaumer 1977, S.118 [UIO]LA AUROSA banwert
  • ClSt, F 416 FILIA AURISA[3] banwyrt
  • D 11, f.8r, col.1 FILIA AURISA[4] banwyrt
  • Dur, 128 CONSOLDA banvyrt
  • Dur, 173 FILA AUROSA[5] banvyrt
  • Dur, 334 VIOLA cleafre UEL banvyrt
  • HA, CLXV, 276/25[6] nsg banwyrt
  • HA, CLXV, 294/7 nsg Ban wyrt
  • HA, CLXV, 294/8f asg Đeos wyrt þe man uiolam 7 oþrum naman banwyrt nemneþ ys þreora cynna þonne ys an brun basuw. 7 oþer hwit. þridde is geoluw
  • HA, CLXV, 62/6 nsg UIOLA ƀ ys ban wyrt
  • LA, 114/1 asg banwyrt
  • Laud, 1506 VIOLA houa UEL banewvrt
  • LB, 21/14 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 21/16 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 23/30 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 27/23 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 39/38 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 42/15 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 8/8 nasg banwyrt
  • LB, 80/3 nsg banwyrt seo þe hæbbe croppan
  • LB, 96/10 nsg sio greate banwyrt
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Images Last Update: 08.11.2011 10:15

Bellis perennis L., daisy, Gänseblümchen

Bellis_perennis

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Kops, Jan. Flora Batava. 1. Deel. Amsterdam: J. C. Sepp en Zoon, 1800.

Centaurium erythraea Rafn., common centaury, Echtes Tausendgüldenkraut

Centaurium_erythraea_bd4_tafel_078

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell

Symphytum_officinale_bd4_tafel_022

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

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Research Literature

AntFö: Förster, Max. "Die altenglische Glossenhandschrift Plantinus 32 (Antwerpen) und Additional 32246 (London)." Anglia 41 (1917): 94-161.
AntK: Kindschi, Lowell. The Latin-Old English Glossaries in Planton-Moretus Manuscript 43 and British Museum Manuscript Additional 32,246. Unpubl. diss. Stanford University: 1955.
Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
ClH: Clark Hall, John Richard. A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 4th ed. MART 14. Cambridge: University Press, 1960.
ClSt: Stryker, William Garlington. The Latin-Old English Glossary in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Unpubl. diss. Stanford Univ.: 1952.
Dioscurides: Berendes, Julius, ed. Des Pedanios Dioskorides aus Anazarbos Arzneimittellehre in fünf Büchern. Übersetzt und mit Erklärungen versehen. Stuttgart: Enke, 1902.
DOE: Cameron, Angus, Ashley Crandell Amos, Antonette di Paolo Healey, et al. (eds.). Dictionary of Old English (A to G). CD-Rom. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies for the Dictionary of Old English Project, 2008.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
André, Jacques. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Société d'édition 'les belles lettres', 1985.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Bierbaumer, Peter. "Zu J.V. Goughs Ausgabe einiger altenglischer Glossen." Anglia 95, 1/2 (1977): 115-121.
Bonser, Wilfrid. The Medical Background of Anglo-Saxon England. London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1963.
Brodin, Gösta, (ed.). Agnus Castus. Edited with Introduction, Notes and Glossary. Essays and Studies on English Language and Literature 6. Uppsala: Almgvist & Wicksell, 1950.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Gough, J. V. (ed.). "Some Old English Glosses." Anglia 92 (1974): 273-290.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hegi, Gustav. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Mit bes. Berücks. v. Oesterreich, Deutschland u. d. Schweiz. Zum Gebrauche in d. Schulen u. zum Selbstunterricht. Bd 1-7. Wien: Pichler, 1906.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Hunt, Tony. Plant Names of Mediaeval England. Cambridge: Brewer, 1989.
Krischke, Ulrike. "On the semantics of Old English compound plant names: motivations and associations." In: Old Names – New Growth: Proceedings of the 2nd ASPNS Conference, University of Graz, Austria, 6-10 June 2007, and Related Essays. Eds. Peter Bierbaumer and Helmut W. Klug. Frankfurt/Main: Lang, 2009. 211-278.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Glossaries in London, BL, Cotton Cleopatra A. iii." In: _Mittelalterliche volkssprachige Glossen: Internationale Fachkonferenz des Zentrums für Mittelalterstudien der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg 2. bis 4. August 1999._ Ed. Rolf Bergmann, Elvira Glaser, and Claudine Moulin-Fankhänel. Heidelberg: Winter, 2001. 189-215.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. "Old English Glosses, Mostly Dry Point." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 60 (1961): 441-450.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
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MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius C iii.
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[1]:

Grigson (1974, s.v. wallflower): "native of the Eastern Mediterranean, introduced c.1573."; and s.v. stock: "native of the Mediterranean region, introduced in the late Middle Ages or the early 16th century".

[2]:

Not documented anywhere else, probably not L.

[3]:

L UIOLA AUROSA as in the Brussels Gloassary (cf. Rusche, 1996, 637).

[4]:

L UIOLA AUROSA.

[5]:

L UIOLA AUROSA.

[6]:

Kap. CLII; cont.: heo [=hypericon] hafaþ blostman swylce banwyrt. Dioskorides III,161: "Hyperikon [...] hat eine Blüte wie die Levkoje." (Berendes 1902,361)