noun, f., i-decl., 2 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 15.07.2011 10:21

Old-English: lungenwyrt, lungenwvrt,

Latin (Machine generated): ELLEBORUS NIGER,

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Meanings Last Update: 19.01.2010 10:03

  • A: plant: foreign
    Hieracium murorum L., golden hawkweed, Wald-Habichtskraut
  • B: plant: foreign
    Helleborus niger L., christmas rose, Christrose
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Comments Last Update: 15.07.2011 10:20

  • Comment on (A): Hieracium murorum L., golden hawkweed, Wald-Habichtskraut

    OE lungenwyrt, like ModE lungwort, generally denotes Pulmonaria officinalis L., but as shown by Cockayne (cf. 1961,III,337) it can also refer to other plants. In LB it denotes H. murorum, indicated by the description: seo biþ geolu ufeweard. In ModE the plant is called 'golden lungwort' because of the lung-shaped leaves and the yellow flowers; the ML name was PULMONARIA (cf. Britten / Holland 1886,210); also cf. the Silesian name Lungenkraut for H. murorum (Pritzel / Jessen 1882,182).

  • Comment on (B): Helleborus niger L., christmas rose, Christrose

    Cf. the ME glosses ELEBORUM, I. ellebre, I. lungwurt (WW 557,27); ELEBORUS NIGER ANCE longwort (WW 580,2). The name seems to be based on the use of the plant against lung diseases of animals: cf. Marzell (2001,2,88, referring to the ModE name 'setterwort' for Helleborus foetidus): "Gerard, Herbal 1597,979: 'Husbandmen are used to make a hole, and put a piece of the root into the dew-lap of their cattle, as a seton, in cases of diseased lungs; and this is called pegging or settering.'"

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Occurrences Last Update: 24.02.2010 10:01

  • Laud, 544[1] ELLEBORUS NIGER lungwvrt
  • LB, 29/9 nsg lungenwyrt seo biþ geolu ufeweard
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Images Last Update: 15.07.2011 10:21

Hieracium murorum L., golden hawkweed, Wald-Habichtskraut


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Fitch, Walter Hood. Illustrations of the British Flora: London: Reeve, 1924.

Helleborus niger L., christmas rose, Christrose


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

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Research Literature

BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
Britten, James, and Robert Holland. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names. London: Trübner, 1886.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Marzell, Heinrich. Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen. Mit Unterstützung der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bearb. von Heinrich Marzell. Unter Mitw. von Wilhelm Wissmann. Köln: Parkland, 2000.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Laud Misc. 567.
Pritzel, Georg und Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Jessen. Die deutschen Volksnamen der Pflanzen. Neudr. der Ausg.Hannover 1882. Amsterdam: Schippers, 1967.
Wright, Cyril E. (ed.). Bald's Leechbook. Early English manuscripts in facsimile. 5. Kopenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1955.

The bot. name "Hellebarus officinalis" given by Stracke (n. 544) seems to be a printing error.