noun, f., n-decl., 36 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 04.01.2011 18:39

Old-English: hin[d]heleþe, hindhæleþe, hindhælrþe, hindhe[l]eþa, hindhealoþ, hindheleþe, hindhelez, hindheolaþ, hindhioloþe, hyndh,


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Meanings Last Update: 04.01.2011 18:39

  • B: plant: native
    ? Teucrium scorodonia L., wood-sage, Salbei-Gamander
  • A: plant: native
    ?? Eupatorium cannabinum L., hemp-agrimony, Gewöhnlicher Wasserdost
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Comments Last Update: 29.06.2011 11:14

  • Comment on (A): ?? Eupatorium cannabinum L., hemp-agrimony, Gewöhnlicher Wasserdost

    Identification provided by BT (s.v. hindhæleþe), Lindheim (1941,n.25), Jordan (1967,186), who base their argumentation on the (rather frequent) L lemma AMBROSIA. Rusche (2003,183-185) refutes both E. cannabium and T. scorodonia as possible indentifications for AMBROSIA and suggests an Artemisia species as most likely identification. He emphasises the relationship of the glosses with Dioscuride's De materia medica and in great detail demonstrates that the existing OE glosses are the result of erroneous copying and compilation.

    L AMBROSIA can denote various fragrant plants (cf. André. s.v.): Artemisis maritima L., sea-wormwood, Strand-Beifuß; Chenopodium botrys L., Jerusalem oak; Klebriger Gänsefuß; Aeonium arboretum (L.) Webb et Berthel., tree aenium, Rosendickblatt; Achillea millefolium L., yarrow, Gewöhnliche Schafgarbe. During the Early Middle Ages even more plants were related to the L name: e.g. Apium graveolens L., wild celery, Echter Sellerie.

    Etymology: hind- = 'hind, Hinde'; -heoloþe cf. s.v. →heoloþe. Cf. Pritzel/Jessen (1967,399): "Teucrium scorodonia L. Mit Cicharium intybus und Eupatarium z.Th. gleichnamig […] Hindtleube-Cordus. Hindtleuff -Gesner." For both plants 'hind' can also refer to the habitat.

  • Comment on (B): ? Teucrium scorodonia L., wood-sage, Salbei-Gamander

    Cf. MED s.v. hīnde-hēle; also cf. Marzell (2000,II,358), who after listing the NHG names for E. cannabium notes: "Vgl. ferner ags. hindhæleþe u.ä. 'AMBROSIA' (v. Lindheim 25), womit aber wahr­scheinlich Teucrium Scorod. (s.d.) gemeint ist." Further cf. Britten / Holland (1886,260), s.v. Hindheal: "Many plants were called AMBROSIA […] Chenopodium Botrys L., and Ambro­sia maritima L. [...] and also Teucrium Scorodonia L." Cf. AhdGl 5,46,13: AMBROSIA. APIUS SILUATICUS[1] hindilape. Hindilape denotes T. scorodonia or Cichorium intybus L., chicory, Gewöhnliche Wegwarte (cf. Marzell 2000,5,994,8); on APIUS SILUATICUS also cf. s.v. →wudu-merce.

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Occurrences Last Update: 10.11.2010 06:25

  • Br,WW, 295,24 AMBROSIA hyndhæleþe
  • C 28, Na 56, 417 AMBROSIA hindheoloþ
  • C 28, Na 56, 50 AMBROSIA hind[2]
  • C 36, Gough S.277 und Bierbaumer 1977, S.116 AMBROSIAE hin[d]heleþe
  • C 71.2, Meritt 73c, 1 AMBROSIE AGRESTIS hindhe[l]eþa
  • D 22, Liebermann S.414 AMBROSIA hindheoloþ
  • Dur, 25 AMBROSIA hindhelethe
  • HA, LXIII, 166/29[3] asg hindehæleþan
  • LA, 118/25[4] nsg [hind]haeleþe
  • LA, 122/7 nsg hindhæleþe
  • LA, 170/28[5] asg hindheoloþan
  • LA, 196/10 asg hindhæleþan
  • LA, 96/4[6] asg hindhæleþa
  • Laud, 160 AMBROSIA hindhelez
  • LB, 107/30 nsg hindheoloþe
  • LB, 108/22 asg hindhiolothan
  • LB, 108/29 nsg hindhioloþe
  • LB, 18/23 asg hindheoloþan
  • LB, 24/11 nsg hindheoloþe
  • LB, 25/13 nsg hindhioloþe
  • LB, 35/35 nsg hindhioloþe
  • LB, 36/10 asg hindhiolothan
  • LB, 43/14 asg hindhiolothan
  • LB, 44/10 asg hindheoloþan
  • LB, 44/13 asg hindhiolothan
  • LB, 80/37 nsg hindhioloþe
  • LB, 80/5 gsg hindheoloþan
  • LB, 82/28 nsg hindhioloþe
  • LB, 83/1 asg hindhiolothan
  • LB, 96/6 asg hindheoloþan
  • LB, 97/15 asg hindheoloþan
  • LB, 98/36f asg hindhiolothan
  • LB, 99/9 asg hindhiolothan
  • Æ, (C) 311,11 AMBROSIA hindheoloþ
  • Æ, (F) 311,11 AMBROSIA hindheoloþ
  • Æ, 311,11 AMBROSIA hindheolaþ
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Etymology Last Update: 04.01.2011 18:39

  • Etymology: Etymology-Comment:
  • Word-Formation:
  • Word-Formation-Comment:
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Images Last Update: 04.01.2011 18:39

?? Eupatorium cannabinum L., hemp-agrimony, Gewöhnlicher Wasserdost


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

? Teucrium scorodonia L., wood-sage, Salbei-Gamander


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Fitch, Walter Hood. Illustrations of the British Flora: London: Reeve, 1924.

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Research Literature

AhdGl: Steinmeyer, Elias und Eduard Sievers. Die althochdeutschen Glossen. Repr. 5 Bde. Hildesheim: Weidmann, 1999.
AldVNa: Napier, Arthur Sampson. Old English Glosses. Anecdota Oxoniensia, Mediaeval and Modern Series. 11. Reprint of Oxford, Clarendon Press 1900. Hildesheim: Olms, 1969.
Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BTS: Toller, Thomas Northcote. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Nachdruck der Ausgabe von: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
BT: Bosworth, Joseph. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Ed. by Thomas Northcote Toller. Reprint 1973. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1882.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
MED: Kurath, Hans and Sherman M. Kuhn. Middle English Dictionary. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1952.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
André, Jacques. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Société d'édition 'les belles lettres', 1985.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Bierbaumer, Peter. "Zu J.V. Goughs Ausgabe einiger altenglischer Glossen." Anglia 95, 1/2 (1977): 115-121.
Britten, James, and Robert Holland. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names. London: Trübner, 1886.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
: Diefenbach, Lorenz. Novum Glossarium Latino-germanicum Mediae et Infimas Aetatis. Sauerländer. 1867. .
Gough, J. V. (ed.). "Some Old English Glosses." Anglia 92 (1974): 273-290.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Jordan, Richard. Die altenglischen Säugetiernamen. Anglistische Forschungen 12. Nachdruck der ausg. 1903. Amsterdam: Swets [u.] Zeitlinger, 1967.
Liebermann, Felix. "Aus Aelfrics Grammatik und Glossar." Archiv 92 (1894): 413-415.
Marzell, Heinrich. Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen. Mit Unterstützung der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bearb. von Heinrich Marzell. Unter Mitw. von Wilhelm Wissmann. Köln: Parkland, 2000.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. Old English Glosses. MLA General Series.16. Repr. New York: 1971.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
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MS London, British Library, Harley 6258b.
MS Oxford, St John's College, 154.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Ashmole 1431.
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MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1828-30.
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Pettit, Edward, (ed. and trans.). Anglo-Saxon Remedies, Charms and Prayers from British Library MS Harley 585: the 'Lacnunga'. Vol. I: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Appendices. Vol. II: Commentary and Bibliography. Mellen Critical Editions and Translations. 6A and 6B. Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Mellen, 2001.
Rusche, Philip Guthrie. "Dioscorides' _De materia Medica_ and Late Old English Herbal Glossaries." In: From Earth to Art: The Many Aspects of the Plant-World in Anglo-Saxon England: Proceedings of the First ASPNS Symposium, University of Glasgow, 5-7 April 2000, ed. Carole P. Biggam. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2003. 181-194.
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Æ: Zupitza, Julius (ed.). Ælfrics Grammatik und Glossar. 4., unveränd. Aufl. / mit einer Einl. von Helmut Gneuss - Nachdr. der 1. Aufl., Berlin, [Weidmann], 1880. Hildesheim: Weidmann, 2003.



N.: "R. hindheoloþ: cp. 417."


MS B: heleþan; Hunger (1935,14-5): AMBROSIAM.


Grattan / Singer (1951,118,n.11): "hindhæleþe: hæleþe MS.L. C. queries hindhæleþe or ehhæleþe: the latter is improbable as it is synonymous with eolonan which has just been mentioned." Also cf. the simplex hioloþe in LB (82/38-83/1).


Glossed AMBROSIA in a 13th cent. hand.


Probably for hindhæleþan but could it be a scribal error for heahheoloþan? Cf. s.v.