Verbena_officinalis_bd4_tafel_070

æsc-þrote

noun, f., n-decl., 31 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 20.10.2011 08:57

Old-English: aescdrotae, aescthrotae, aescþrote, æsc-þrote, æsc-þrotu, eascthrote, escþrote, æscðrote, aescðrote, æscþrotan,

Latin (Machine generated): ANNUOSA, FEROLA, FERULA, FERULA .I. HARUNDO. UIRGULA UEL NOMEN HOLERIS, FERUTELA UEL FERULA, FURULA, IEROBOTANIM, UERMENACA, VERMENACA,

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Reference Last Update: 25.09.2020 14:35

Meanings Last Update: 20.10.2011 08:57

  • A: plant: native
    ? Verbena officinalis L., vervain, Echtes Eisenkraut
  • B: plant: introduced Clapham (1962,520): probably introduced and cultivated as pot-herb, not very well naturalised. Kitson (1988,107): "probably native, but native distribution sparse enough for it to have also been imported." Stace (1997,504) "probably always introduced".
    ? Aegopodium podagraria L., ground-elder, Geißfuß
  • C: plant: introduced
    ? Anchusa officinalis L., alkanet, Gewöhnliche Ochsenzunge
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Comments Last Update: 20.10.2011 09:39

  • Comment on (A): ? Verbena officinalis L., vervain, Echtes Eisenkraut

    One of three possible identifications; based on HA IV: þeos wyrt þe man UERMENACAM 7 oþrum naman æschrote nemneþ (Cockayne 1961,I,90); also cf. Fischer (2001,288): "Verbena officinalis L. [...] VERMENACA, VERMINACA." According to Cockayne (1961,II,368) the corresponding illustration of HA shows V. officinalis, too. This meaning is corroborated by several glosses: cf. for example Dur 203 (IEROBOTANIM eascthrote); for HIEROBOTANE, i.e. V. officinalis, cf. André (1985, s.v.), and cf. Hunger (1935,167): VERMINATIA = Verbena officinalis and his note on HA IV,216/11.

    Etymology: Holthausen (1974,s.v.): "æsc [...] 2. 'Äsche'(Fisch) in æscþrote, -u f. 'Eisenkraut', zu ahd. asco", and "þrote, -u f. 'Kehle'". Like Förster's (1917,132) translation 'grayling's head, Äschenkopf' Holthausen's interpretation is problematic because an OE fish name +æsc is not recorded anywhere and a relation can only be deduced from NHG: "Äsche [...] Flußfisch Thymallus vulgaris, mhd. asche, ahd. asco m. aus idg. +oskon- im Ablaut mit idg. +esok 'Lachs'" (cf. Kluge 1967, s.v.). Moreover, it is unintelligible why a plant is compared to a 'grayling' when various other, more common fishes (salmon, Lachs, OE leax, Salmo salar; or herring, OE hǣring, Clupea harengus[1]) also have a straight, funnel shaped gullet.

  • Comment on (B): ? Aegopodium podagraria L., ground-elder, Geißfuß

    One of three possible identifications; based on glosses: 8th c.: FERULA, æscþrote (WW 21/44); 11th c.: FERULA, æscþo­te (WW 298/20), etc. Cockayne (1961,II,368f.) suggests: "æscþrotu [...] 3. Goutweed, aegopodium podagraria [...] This plant I take to be meant by the FERULA [...] The Ferula communis or fennel giant, is not a native of England [...] This aegopodium is often called angelica, and the angelicas are also large and hollow. 'Throat' seems to imply hollowness, and 'Ash' either size or similar leaves." Being not native to the British Isles Ferula communis L., giant fennel, Riesenfenchel, Steckenkraut[2] has been substituted by Aegopodium podagraria L., which is similar in appearance; also cf. a gloss of the 10th cent.: FERULA, I. HARUNDO, UIRGULA, UEL NOMEN HOLERIS, æscþrote (WW 236/40).[3] This identification is not possible for HA but Pettit (2001, glossary, s.v.) uses it for the LA.

    Etymology: The plant name can only have referred to a plant's long, hollow stem, like the stem of A. podagraria. The leaves of this plant resemble the leaves of the ash. Therefore a relation to the plan name →æsc (1) is most likely. We cannot determine what the relation to V. officinalis or A. officinalis could be.

  • Comment on (C): ? Anchusa officinalis L., alkanet, Gewöhnliche Ochsenzunge

    One of three possible identifications; based on glosses: WW 134/17 (Förster 1917,132): ANNUOSA æscþrotu; Dur 30: ANNUOSA eascthrote. Förster comments on these glosses: "An beiden stellen ist annuosa offenbar verderbt aus ancusa, d.i. lat. anchusa [...], welches eine fär­berpflanze 'ochsenzunge' [...] bezeichnete." (In both occurrences ANNUOSA seems to be a corrupted ANCUSA, i.e. L ANCHUSA, which denotes the dyeing plant 'alkanet'.) In HA CI æscþote translates the ANCHUSA of the L original (cf. Cockayne 1961,II,368).

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Occurrences Last Update: 21.04.2009 08:42

  • AntFö, 132,205 ANNUOSA æscþrotu
  • Br,WW, 298,20 FERULA æscðrote
  • ClSt, F 154 FURULA æscþrote
  • ClSt, F 414 FERULA æscþrote
  • Cp, 881 (F 138) FERULA aescðrote
  • D 11, f.7r, col.3 FURULA æscþrote
  • D 11, f.8r, col.1 FERULA æscþrote
  • Dur, 171 FERUTELA UEL FERULA eascthrote
  • Dur, 203 IEROBOTANIM eascthrote
  • Dur, 30 ANNUOSA eascthrote
  • Ep, 450 FERULA aescthrotae
  • Erf, 450 FEROLA aescdrotae
  • HA, IV, 216/11[4] asg æscþrote
  • HA, IV, 8/1 nsg UERMENACA þæt is æscþrotu[5]
  • HA, IV, 90/1 nsg æscþrote
  • HA, IV, 90/3 asg oðrum naman æscþrote nemneð
  • HlOl, F 203[6] FERULA .I. HARUNDO. UIRGULA UEL NOMEN HOLERIS æscþrote
  • LA, 110/12 nsg æscðrote
  • LA, 148/4 nsg æscðrote
  • Laud, 1501 VERMENACA escþrote
  • LB, 108/17 asg æscþrotan
  • LB, 109/22 gsg æscþrotan
  • LB, 12/20 nsg æscþrotu
  • LB, 20/41 nsg æscþrote
  • LB, 30/22 nsg æscþrote
  • LB, 30/25 asg æscþrotan
  • LB, 33/15 asg æscþrotan
  • LB, 37/11 nsg æscþrotu
  • LB, 47/15 asg æscþrotan
  • LB, 82/27 nsg æscþrotu
  • LB, 96/28f gsg æscþrotan
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Etymology Last Update: 20.10.2011 08:57

  • Etymology: Etymology-Comment:
  • Word-Formation:
  • Word-Formation-Comment:
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Images Last Update: 20.10.2011 08:57

? Verbena officinalis L., vervain, Echtes Eisenkraut

Verbena_officinalis_bd4_tafel_070

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: Thomé, Otto Wilhelm: Flora ...

? Aegopodium podagraria L., ground-elder, Geißfuß

Aegopodium_podagraria_bd3_tafel_053

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: Thomé, Otto Wilhelm: Flora ...

? Anchusa officinalis L., alkanet, Gewöhnliche Ochsenzunge

Anchusa_officinalis_img_9755

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: Flora Batava of Afbeelding ...

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Research Literature

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Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
ClSt: Stryker, William Garlington. The Latin-Old English Glossary in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Unpubl. diss. Stanford Univ.: 1952.
Cp: Hessels, John Henry. An Eighth-Century Latin Anglo-Saxon Glossary. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1890.
Cp: Lindsay, Wallace Martin. The Corpus Glossary. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1921.
Cp: Wynn, J. B. An Edition of the Anglo-Saxon Corpus Glosses. Unpubl. Diss. Oxford: 1961.
DOE: Cameron, Angus, Ashley Crandell Amos, Antonette di Paolo Healey, et al. (eds.). Dictionary of Old English (A to G). CD-Rom. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies for the Dictionary of Old English Project, 2008.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
Ep, Erf: Pheifer, J.D. (ed.). Old English Glosses in the Epinal-Erfurt Glossary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
Hl: Oliphant, Robert Thompson. The Harley Latin-Old English Glossary. Edited from British Museum MS Harley 3376, Janua Linguarum, Series Practica XX. The Hague: Mouton, 1966.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
André, Jacques. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Société d'édition 'les belles lettres', 1985.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Bischoff, Bernard, et al. (eds.).. The Épinal, Erfurt, Werden and Corpus Glossaries. Early English manuscripts in facsimile 22. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1988.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Fischer, Hermann. Mittelalterliche Pflanzenkunde. Geschichte der Wissenschaften. Geschichte der Botanik II. Nachdruck der Ausgabe 1929. München: 2001.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Kluge, Friedrich. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 20th ed. by W. Mitzka. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967.
Köhler, Johann Jakob. Die altenglischen Fischnamen. [Nachdr. der Ausg.] Heidelberg 1906. Anglistische Forschungen ; 21 Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1906.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Glossaries in London, BL, Cotton Cleopatra A. iii." In: _Mittelalterliche volkssprachige Glossen: Internationale Fachkonferenz des Zentrums für Mittelalterstudien der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg 2. bis 4. August 1999._ Ed. Rolf Bergmann, Elvira Glaser, and Claudine Moulin-Fankhänel. Heidelberg: Winter, 2001. 189-215.
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[1]:

Cf. Köhler (1906,43 and 53).

[2]:

"Der dürre Stengel der Ferula-Pflanze diente im Altertum als Zuchtrute für Schüler" (Hegi, 1906,V,1354: The dried stalk of the FERULA plant was used as rod to punish pupils in ancient times). Also cf. the legend according to which Prometheus transported the fire he stole in heaven down to earth in a hollow stalk of the FERULA (Hegi, 1906,V,1355).

[3]:

L HOLUS "Gemüse"; young leaves, leave stalks, and stalks of A. podagraria provide tender wild vegetables or lettuce (cf. Hegi 1906,V,1215).

[4]:

Ch. CI; cont.: Gif hwa forbærned sy genim þas ylcan wyrte serpyllum 7 æscþrote ænnewrid; Hunger (1935,155): AD COMBUSTUM. HERBARM SERPULLUM ET ANCUSAE SURCULUM UNCIAM.

[5]:

Toc: HERBA UERMENACA ƀ is æscþrotu; since each chapter heading starts with "HERBA" we omit it on purpose.

[6]:

Oliphant has æscþrote; cf. review by Schabram (1968,495-500).