Scrophularia_nodosa_bd4_tafel_037

brūn-wyrt

noun, f., i-decl., 31 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 10.07.2014 18:58

Old-English: brunewurt, brunewvrt, brūnewyrt, brunvyrt, brunwyrt,

Latin (Machine generated): BUGIGLOSA .I BOUIS LINGUA .I., RADIOLUM, SPIMON,.I. TEUERION,, SPLENION, UACCINIUM,

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Reference Last Update: 25.09.2020 15:20

Meanings Last Update: 10.07.2014 18:58

  • A: plant: native
    Scrophularia auriculata L., water-figwort, Wasser-Braunwurz
  • B: plant: native
    Scrophularia nodosa L., common figwort, Knotige Braunwurz
  • C: plant: native
    Asplenium ceterach L., rusty spleenwort, Milzfarn
  • D: plant: native
    Asplenium scolopendrium L., hart's tongue fern, Hirschzungenfarn
  • E: plant: native
    ? Primula veris L., cowslip, Echte Schlüsselblume
  • F: plant: native
    ? Prunella vulgaris L., selfheal, Braunelle
  • H: plant: native Anchusa arvensis (L.) Bieb. is a native species. (cf. Clapham 1962,656).
    ?? Anchusa L., alkanet, Ochsenzunge
  • G: plant: native
    ??? Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis., betony, Echter Ziest
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Comments Last Update: 22.03.2012 08:11

  • Comment on (A): Scrophularia auriculata L., water-figwort, Wasser-Braunwurz

    This identification is based on the ModE and G correspondents (cf. Britten/Holland 1886, s.v. brownwort, NED, s.v. brownwort; Pritzel/Jessen 1967,368, s.v. S. aquatica L.). It can be applied to LB and LA.

    Etymology: The name 'brownwort, Braunwurz' refers to the brownish color of the flowers, when Scrophularia species are denoted (cf. Hegi 1906,VI,33.), and to the brown underside of the leaves of A. ceterach.

  • Comment on (B): Scrophularia nodosa L., common figwort, Knotige Braunwurz

    For LB 29/12 Cockayne 1962,II,374 suggests S. nodosa. Cf. Britten/Holland (1886,68) who refer to Turner's Herbal: "Turner confines the name (=brownwort) as in actual use to S. aquatica, but says S. nodosa 'may be called in English wood brounwurt.'" This identification can be applied to LB and LA.

  • Comment on (C): Asplenium ceterach L., rusty spleenwort, Milzfarn

    This identification has to be preferred for the HA, cf. ch. LVI: "Wiþ miltan sare genim þysse wyrte wyrttruman þe grecas SPLENION 7 romane TEUCRION nemnaþ 7 eac engle brune wyrt hataþ". Similar explanations can be found in glosses.

    This identification is not likely for the LB because in the HA A. ceterach is used against illnesses of the spleen (also cf. Gk άδπλήνον[1]) but the brūnwyrt / brūnewyrt of the LB is never used in this context.

  • Comment on (D): Asplenium scolopendrium L., hart's tongue fern, Hirschzungenfarn

    Cf. Hunger (1935,167): Ch. LVIII: SPLENION = Asplenium scolopendrium. Another probable explanation could be an erroneous interpretation of BOUIS LINGUA, based on LINGUA CERVINA 'hart's tongue, Hirschzunge' (cf. Lindheim 1941, note 302), an old name for A. scolopendrium.[2] Also cf. the G names in Marzell (2000,3,704): Ochsenzunge, Rinderzunge, and ModF langue de boeuf, langue de vache. Banham (2002,97a): "The word seems to be especially associated with blood-stains, and brunwyrt is apparently the hart's tongue fern, which has rows of bright rusty-coloured spores underneath its fronds." Cameron (cf. 1993,114) links the RADIOLUM (Dur 287) to a human's ribs or radius bone of the forearm and consequently to the fronds of a fern, especially the boar-fern, cf. s.v. →eofor-fearn.

  • Comment on (E): ? Primula veris L., cowslip, Echte Schlüsselblume

    The ambiguous L lemma VACCINIUM (cf. Förster 1917,127) is glossed with coweslyppe (WW 618,24); cowsokulle (WW 644,14) in the 15th century. OE →cū-slyppe, Primula veris L., can be interpreted as 'cow pat, Kuhfladen' because of its leaves tinting slowly brown after bloom, therefore the name 'brownwort, Braunwurz' for P. veris is not impossible.

  • Comment on (F): ? Prunella vulgaris L., selfheal, Braunelle

    Suggested by Cockayne (1961,II,374) and also by Pettit (2001,2,XVI,41), and Cameron (1993,114).

  • Comment on (G): ??? Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis., betony, Echter Ziest

    Cameron (1993,114) has a detailed discussion of this OE plant name, concerning this identification he says: "It has also been suggested that it may be betony [...]. This last identification is most unlikely, because brunwyrt and betonica are prescribed together in four Old English recipes." Could this be a misunderstanding on Cameron's part, as other authors (e.g. Storms 1948,59; Pettit 2001,1,219) refer to Scrophularia auriculata, our meaning A, as 'water-betony'?

  • Comment on (H): ?? Anchusa L., alkanet, Ochsenzunge

    Based on the gloss Laud 219 Stracke (n. on 219) elaborately but not convincingly tries to identify brūnewyrt as an Anchusa species.

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Occurrences Last Update: 18.05.2009 06:41

  • AntFö, 127,179(WW 133,23)[3] UACCINIUM brunewyrt
  • Br,WW, 302,2 SPIMON,.I. TEUERION, brunewyrt
  • C 71.2, Meritt 73b, 19 SPLENION brunewurt
  • Dur, 287 RADIOLUM eoferfearn UEL brunvyrt
  • Dur, 306 SPLENION brunvyrt
  • Dur, 329 UACCINIUM brunvyrt
  • HA, LVII, 158/17 nsg Brunewyrt
  • HA, LVII, 158/21 asg þe grecas splenion 7 romane teucrion nemnaþ 7 eac engle brunewyrt hataþ
  • HA, LVII, 26/12 nsg splenion ƀ is brunewyrt[4]
  • LA, 100/18 nasg brunwyrt
  • LA, 114/l nasg brunwyrt
  • LA, 122/17 nasg brunewyrt
  • LA, 158/11 nasg brunwyrt
  • LA, 164/15 nasg brunewyrt
  • Laud, 1325 SPLENION brunewurt. cerf lengue
  • Laud, 1505 UACCINIUM brunewvrt
  • Laud, 219 BUGIGLOSA .I BOUIS LINGUA .I. brunewyrt
  • LB, 21/15 nasg brunwyrt
  • LB, 29/12 asg þa brunanwyrt, bradleafan, sio weaxeþ on wuda
  • LB, 30/36 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 31/8 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 37/15 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 37/5[5] nasg IX brune bisceopwyrt
  • LB, 38/1 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 40/19 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 8/9 nasg brunwyrt
  • LB, 80/10 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 80/11 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 80/32 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 80/36 nasg brunewyrt
  • LB, 80/39 nasg brunewyrt
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Etymology Last Update: 10.07.2014 18:58

  • Etymology: Etymology-Comment:
  • Word-Formation:
  • Word-Formation-Comment:
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Images Last Update: 10.07.2014 18:58

Scrophularia nodosa L., common figwort, Knotige Braunwurz

Scrophularia_nodosa_bd4_tafel_037

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

Asplenium ceterach L., rusty spleenwort, Milzfarn

Asplenium_ceterach

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Asplenium scolopendrium L., hart's tongue fern, Hirschzungenfarn

Asplenium_scolopendrium_bd1_tafel_007

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

? Primula veris L., cowslip, Echte Schlüsselblume

Primula_veris_bd4_tafel_011

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

? Prunella vulgaris L., selfheal, Braunelle

Prunella_vulgaris_bd4_tafel_060

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

??? Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis., betony, Echter Ziest

Stachys_officinalis

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Fitch, Walter Hood. Illustrations of the British Flora: London: Reeve, 1924.

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Research Literature

AntFö: Förster, Max. "Die altenglische Glossenhandschrift Plantinus 32 (Antwerpen) und Additional 32246 (London)." Anglia 41 (1917): 94-161.
Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
DOE: Cameron, Angus, Ashley Crandell Amos, Antonette di Paolo Healey, et al. (eds.). Dictionary of Old English (A to G). CD-Rom. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies for the Dictionary of Old English Project, 2008.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
NED: Murray, James Augustus Henry, H. Bradley, W.A. Craigie, C.T. Onions (eds.). A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford: Calrendon Press, 1888.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
Banham, Debby. "Investigating the Anglo-Saxon _Materia Medica_: Archaeobotany, Manuscript Art, Latin and Old English." _The Archaeology of Medicine._ Ed. Robert Arnott. British Archaeological Reports. International Series. 1046. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2002. 95-99.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Britten, James, and Robert Holland. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names. London: Trübner, 1886.
Cameron, Malcolm Lawrence. Anglo-Saxon Medicine. Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Marzell, Heinrich. Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen. Mit Unterstützung der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bearb. von Heinrich Marzell. Unter Mitw. von Wilhelm Wissmann. Köln: Parkland, 2000.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. Old English Glosses. MLA General Series.16. Repr. New York: 1971.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 585.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius C iii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 6258b.
MS Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, Dc. 160+187+186+185.
MS Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Museum, 47.
MS London, British Library, Add. 32246.
MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1828-30.
MS Durham, Cathedral, Hunter 100.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Laud Misc. 567.
Pettit, Edward, (ed. and trans.). Anglo-Saxon Remedies, Charms and Prayers from British Library MS Harley 585: the 'Lacnunga'. Vol. I: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Appendices. Vol. II: Commentary and Bibliography. Mellen Critical Editions and Translations. 6A and 6B. Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Mellen, 2001.
Pritzel, Georg und Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Jessen. Die deutschen Volksnamen der Pflanzen. Neudr. der Ausg.Hannover 1882. Amsterdam: Schippers, 1967.
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[1]:

Cf. Berendes (1902,351).

[2]:

Also cf. HA XLII, where Gk BUGLOSSA is translated with hundes tunge; also cf. the gloss BUGLOSSA hertestunge, ossentunge (Cockayne 1961,II,395).

[3]:

Kindschi (1951,107,3) reads branwyrt and notes: "Förster reads brunwyrt, "brownwort". WW has branwyrt, too."

[4]:

MS H: brunwyrt.

[5]:

Wyrt has to be supplemented: the passage should read "IX brunewyrt, bisceopwyrt […]".