noun, m., n-decl., 144 occ.

Type: plant-part

Last Update: 10.10.2011 11:38

Old-English: wyrtruma, wyrtrum, wyrttruma, wurtruma, wirttruma, wyrtrumma, wyrtrumme, wyrtrvm, wyrtrvmo, wyrtryma, wyrttruma, wyrttrumma, wurdtrum-, wyrtrum-, wyrtrvm-, wyrtrym-, wyrttrum, wirtruma,


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References Last Update: 16.01.2020 22:24

  • (ge)wyrttrumian;
  • ofwyrttrumian;
  • ofāwyrttrumian;
  • unwyrttrumian;
  • →wyrt;
  • wyrttrumian;
  • āwyrttrumian;
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Meaning Last Update: 11.11.2008 06:32

  • A: plant-part
    -, root, Wurzel
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Comment Last Update: 10.10.2011 11:21

  • Comment on (A): -, root, Wurzel

    Concerning the identification cf. the L models to HA 104/25 (Hunger 1935,132) RADIX and the note on PD, 29/2. The word probably became extinct because of its length; OE rōt (from OIs rōt) could have speeded up this process.

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Occurrences Last Update: 10.10.2011 11:30

  • AldVGo, 975 RADICIBUS RADICES DICUNTUR wyrtrumum[1]
  • AldVNa, 1,918[2] RADICIBUS wyrtrum
  • AldVNa, 12,6 RADICIBUS wyrttruman
  • AntK, 128,10 RADIX wyrtruma
  • AntK, 144,12 RADIX wyrtrume
  • C 12, MonCa, Korhammer 22, 8(D, V) RADICES wyrttruman
  • C 15, LibSc 110, 6 RADIX wyrtruma
  • C 15, LibSc 112, 3 RADIX wyrtruma
  • C 15, LibSc 167, 7 RADIX wyrttruma
  • C 15, LibSc 3, 19 IN RADICE on wyrtruman
  • C 15, LibSc 65, 11 RADIX wyrtruma
  • C21.1, Rit 19, 18 RADIX wyrtrvm
  • C21.1, Rit 65, 9 RADICES wyrtrvmo
  • C21.2, Rit 125, 18 RADICES wyrttrvm'
  • ClQu, 38,16 RADIX wyrtruma
  • HA, 104/25 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 108/19[3] asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 108/3 nsg wyrtruma
  • HA, 108/9[4] asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 110/23[5] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 114/19f asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 118/23[6] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 128/2[7] dpl wyrttrumum
  • HA, 130/9f[8] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 132/12f[9] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 136/14[10] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 138/14[11] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 142/9[12] dsg wyrtruman
  • HA, 144/15 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 152/15 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 154/19 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 170/9 gsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 172/11 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 176/20 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 182/2 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 200/5 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 238/5 asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 256/7 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 258/1 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 258/4 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 258/6 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 260/10f npl wyrttruman
  • HA, 260/14 asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 260/17 gsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 260/6[13] asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 264/22 npl wyrttruman
  • HA, 268/14[14] nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 268/17 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 268/21 asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 270/7 asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 276/7 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 280/16[15] asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 282/19[16] asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 282/19[17] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 282/22 gsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 284/1 gsg wyrtruman
  • HA, 284/21[18] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 286/1 dsg wyrtruman
  • HA, 288/22 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 288/23f asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 290/2 gsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 304/1[19] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 318/13 nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 318/15 dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 318/21 asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 318/9f nsg wyrttruma
  • HA, 322/12 asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • HA, 70/11f dsg wyrttruman
  • HA, 72/1f asg(pl.) wyrttruman
  • HA, 92/3 dpl wyrtrumum
  • HA, 92/3 dpl wyrtrumum
  • HA, 96/5f[20] dsg wyrtruman
  • HA, 98/17 dsg wyrttruman
  • LA, 180/4[21] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • LA, 198,A.8[22] nsg worttrume
  • LA, 96/7[23] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • LB, 10/13 dsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 10/14 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 102/27 gsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 11/14f[24] dsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 15/2 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 20/29 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 21/39 napl (asg) wyrtruman
  • LB, 28/14 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 28/19 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 33/16 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 38/7 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 53/34 dsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 55/14 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 57/29 gsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 57/32 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 57/6 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 58/32 gsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 6/32 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 62/12 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 70/23 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 72/12 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 74/14 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 75/21 napl (asg) wyrttruman
  • LB, 81/14 dsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 87/8 dsg wyrttruman
  • LB, 88/18 asg wyrttruman
  • Lk(Li), 3,9 AD RADICEM to wyrtruma
  • Lk(Li), 8,13 RADICEM wyrtruma
  • Lk(Ru), 17,6[25] ERADICARE of wyrtrumum
  • Lk(Ru), 3,9 AD RADICEM to wyrtruma
  • Mk(Li), 11,20 A RADICIBUS of wyrtrumum
  • Mk(Li), 4,17 RADICEM wyrtruma
  • Mk(Li), 4,6 RADICEM wyrtruma
  • Mk(Ru), 11,20 A RADICIBUS of wyrtrumum
  • Mk(Ru), 4,17 RADICEM wyrtruma
  • Mk(Ru), 4,6 RADICEM wyrtruma
  • Mt(Li), 13,21 RADICEM wyrttrumma
  • Mt(Li), 13,6 RADICEM wyrtrumme
  • Mt(Li), 3,10 AD RADICEM to wyrtrumma
  • Mt(Ru), 13,21 RADICEM wyrtruma
  • Mt(Ru), 13,6 RADICEM wy[r]trume
  • Mt(Ru), 3,10 AD RADICES to wyrtruma
  • Mt(Ru), 3,10 AD RADICES to wyrtruma
  • PD, 21/8[26]) dpl wyrtrume
  • PD, 21/9[27] asg(pl.) wurtruma
  • PD, 29/2[28] asg(pl.) wyrtrume
  • PD, 35/10[29] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • PD, 43/13[30] asg(pl.) wyrtruman
  • PD, 43/15[31] asg(pl.) wurtrumen
  • PD, 47/8 asg(pl.) wyrtrumann
  • Ps(A), 51,7 RADICEM wyrtruman
  • Ps(B), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruman
  • Ps(C), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruma
  • Ps(C), 79,10 RADICES wirttruman
  • Ps(D), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruman
  • Ps(D), 79,10 RADICES wyrtruman
  • Ps(F), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruman
  • Ps(F), 79,10 RADICES wyrttruman
  • Ps(G), 51,7 RADICEM wy[][32]
  • Ps(H), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruman
  • Ps(H), 79,10 RADICES wyrttruman
  • Ps(I), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruman
  • Ps(I), 79,10 RADICES wyrttruman
  • Ps(J), 51,7 RADICEM wyrttruma
  • Ps(J), 79,10 RADICES wirttruman
  • Ps(K), 79,10 RADICES wyrttruman
  • Æ, (C) 312,7 RADIX wyrttruma
  • Æ, 312,7 RADIX wyrtruma
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Research Literature

AldVGo: Goossens, Louis. The Old English Glosses of 'MS. Brussels, Royal Library 1650'. (Aldhelm's De Laudibus Virginitatis) Edited with an introduction, notes and indexes. Klasse der Letteren. Verhandelingen. 36,74. Brussels: Paleis der Academien, 1974.
AldVNa: Napier, Arthur Sampson. Old English Glosses. Anecdota Oxoniensia, Mediaeval and Modern Series. 11. Reprint of Oxford, Clarendon Press 1900. Hildesheim: Olms, 1969.
AntK: Kindschi, Lowell. The Latin-Old English Glossaries in Planton-Moretus Manuscript 43 and British Museum Manuscript Additional 32,246. Unpubl. diss. Stanford University: 1955.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
ClQu: Quinn, John Joseph. The Minor Latin-Old English Glossaries in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Diss Stanford U. 1956.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
Li, Ru (= Mt, Mk, Lk, Jn): Skeat, Walter William. The Four Gospels in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1871.
LibSc: Rhodes, Ernest Wood. Defensor's Liber Scintillarum. Unaltered reprint [der Ausg.] London 1889. Early English Text Society ; 93. Woodbridge, Suffolk u.a.: Boydell & Brewer, 2001.
PD: Löweneck, Max (ed.). Peri Didaxeon. Erlanger Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 12. Erlangen: Junge, 1896.
Ps (A), PsCa (A): Kuhn, Sherman M.. The Vespasian Psalter. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965.
Ps (B): Brenner, Eduard. Der altenglische Junius-Psalter: Anglistische Forschungen 23. Heidelberg: Winter, 1908.
Ps (D), PsCa (D): Roeder, Fritz. Der altenglische Regius-Psalter. Studien zur englischen Philo­logie. 18. Repr. d. Ausg. Halle an d. Saale 1904. Walluf b. Wiesbaden: Sändig, 1904.
Ps (F): Kimmens, Andrew. An Edition of British Museum MS Stow 2: The Stowe Psalter. Diss Princeton U. 1969.
Ps (G), PsCa (G): Rosier, James L. (ed.). The Vitellus Psalter. Cornell Studies in English. 42. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1962.
Ps (H): Campbell, A. P. (ed.). The Tiberius Psalter. Ottawa Medieval Texts and Studies. 2. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1974.
PS (I), PsCa (I): Lindelöf, Uno Lorenz. Der Lambeth-Psalter. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 35/i and 43/iii. 2 vols.. Helsinki: 1909.
PS (J): MS London, British Library, Arundel 60.
PS (K), PsCa (K): Sisam, Celia and Kenneth. The Salisbury Psalter. Early English Text Society : [Original series]; 242. First published 1959. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1969.
Ps(C), PsCa (C): Wildhagen, Karl. Der Cambridger Psalter. Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa. 7. Hamburg: 1910.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Peri Didaxeon." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 82-143.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Davey, William J.. An Edition of the Regius Psalter and its Latin Commentary. Diss Univ. of Ottawa Ottawa: 1979.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Kitson, Peter R.. "The Root of the Matter: OE _wyrt, wyrtwale, -a, wyrt(t)rum(a)_ and Cognates." In: _Language History and Linguistic Modelling. A festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th birthday Volume 1._ Ed. by Raymond Hickey and Stanislaw Puppel. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1997. 127-143.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Glossaries in London, BL, Cotton Cleopatra A. iii." In: _Mittelalterliche volkssprachige Glossen: Internationale Fachkonferenz des Zentrums für Mittelalterstudien der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg 2. bis 4. August 1999._ Ed. Rolf Bergmann, Elvira Glaser, and Claudine Moulin-Fankhänel. Heidelberg: Winter, 2001. 189-215.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 585.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius C iii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 6258b.
MS Cambridge, University Library, Ff.1.23.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Tiberius C.vi.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vespasian A.i.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius E.xviii.
MS London, British Library, Royal 2 B.v.
MS London, British Library, Stowe 2.
MS London, Lambeth Palace, 427.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Junius 27.
MS Salisbury, Cathedral, 150.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Nero D.iv..
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Auct. D.2.19.
MS London, British Library, Royal 7 C.iv.
MS London, British Library, Royal 6 A.vi..
MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1650.
MS Cambridge, University Library, Add. 3330.
MS , , Phillipps Collection 8071.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Digby 146.
MS Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Museum, 47.
MS London, British Library, Add. 32246.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Cleopatra A.iii.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 449.
Olds, Barbara M.. The Anglo-Saxon Leechbook III: A Critical Edition and Translation. Diss. Univ. of Denver. 1985.
Pettit, Edward, (ed. and trans.). Anglo-Saxon Remedies, Charms and Prayers from British Library MS Harley 585: the 'Lacnunga'. Vol. I: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Appendices. Vol. II: Commentary and Bibliography. Mellen Critical Editions and Translations. 6A and 6B. Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Mellen, 2001.
Rusche, Philip Guthrie. The Cleopatra Glossaries. Diss. Yale Univ. Yale University, 1996.
Sanborn, Linda (ed.). An Edition of British Library MS. Harley 6258B: Peri Didaxeon. Diss. Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 1983.
Van Arsdall, Anne. Medieval Herbal Remedies. Illustrations by Robby Poore. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.
Voss, Manfred. "Quinns Edition der kleineren Cleopatraglossare: Corrigenda und Addenda." AAA 14:2 (1989): 127-139.
Wright, Cyril E. (ed.). Bald's Leechbook. Early English manuscripts in facsimile. 5. Kopenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1955.
Æ: Zupitza, Julius (ed.). Ælfrics Grammatik und Glossar. 4., unveränd. Aufl. / mit einer Einl. von Helmut Gneuss - Nachdr. der 1. Aufl., Berlin, [Weidmann], 1880. Hildesheim: Weidmann, 2003.

N.: "-v- over -y-."


N.: "After wyrtrum are traces of a letter; prob. wyrtrumum was wr., as in H."


MS V: wyrtruman.


MS H: wyrttruman.


MS H: wyrttruman.


MSS BH: wyrttruman.


MS B: -man.


MS H: wyrttruman.


MSS BH: wyrttruman.


MS H: wyrttruman.


MSS BH: wyrttruman.


MS B: -ttr-.


Cont.: gehrædne wyrttruman.


MS H: wyrttruman.


Cont.: gedrigedne wyrttruman.


MS H: wyrtruman.


MS H: hwitne wyrtruman; -ttr-.


MS w: trumne.


Cont.: lancne w..


MS B: -ttr-.


Cont.: curmeallan wyrtruman.


Cf. Grattan / Singer (1951,198, A.8): "At the bottom of fo.190b, in a late-thirteenth-century hand, and apparently having no reference to the text: rote wort walen. .loanes.wort trume. [In the MS the words are written above each other.] Neither C nor L has recorded it."


Cont.: betan wyrtruman.


The text celeþonian sæd genim on þam wyrttruman does not make sense, therefore Cockayne suggests the reading on þam: oþþe þone.


Cf. ERADICARE s.v. ofwyrtrumian.


Cf. PD 21/9.


I.e. "tooth roots; Zahnwurzeln"; cont.: grinding teþ, þe alc mid feower wyrtrume gefæstned byþ; and þane hy hero wurtruma forleataþ, þanne sweratiged hy and fealled. L text (Löweneck 1896,20/2ff): DENTES [...] QUI IIII RADICIBUS FIXI NASCUNTUR, QUOS GRECI RETARARICOS VOCANT, ET PUTRIDI FACTI AUT LIVIDI AUT NIGRI, AUT IN PARVA FRUSTRA COMMINUTI, RELICTIS RADICIBUS, RELAXATI CADUNT."


Cont.: dracentan wyrtrume; L text (Löweneck 1896,28/1): DRACANTEE RADICEM; and cf. his note (1896,29,n.1): "Am obern Rande des Blattes; am untern Rande steht: Eftsona nim dracentan wrutruma."


Cont.: earixena wyrtruman. L text (Löweneck 1896,34/9f): CUM RADICIBUS CIPERI; aslo cf. his note (1896,35,n.7: "C.; Hs. wyrtruma, wohl verschrieben für wyrtruma."


Cont.: curfettan wyrtruman.


Cont.: ellan wyrte wurtrumen; MS: wurtrumem.


For wyrttruman? Cf. Ps(D).