noun, f., n-decl., 30 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 05.10.2011 11:20

Old-English: wuduhofe, wuduhrofe, wudurife, wuduroue, vodehofe, vuderofe, vuderoue, wuderofe, wuderoue,


↑ top

References Last Update: 16.06.2022 06:25

Meanings Last Update: 02.03.2011 08:54

  • A: plant: native
    Galium odoratum (L.) Scop., woodruff, Waldmeister
  • B: plant: foreign
    Asphodelus L., asphodel, a species of ~, Affodil, eine Art von ~
↑ top

Comments Last Update: 05.10.2011 11:18

  • Comment on (A): Galium odoratum (L.) Scop., woodruff, Waldmeister

    The identification is based on the ME and ModE plant names woderowe and woodruff, which generally denote G. odoratum. Cf. the Agnus Castus (Brodin 1950,163): Hastilogia is an herbe þat men clepe woderowe þis herbe hagt lewys lyk to croyswourth. Brodin (1950,270) identifies the plant name hastilogia with G. odoratum. Cf. Britten / Holland (1886,569): Woodrip, woodrowe, woodruff, all denote G. odoratum. Also cf. Hunger (1935,167): LIV: ASTULA REGIA = G. odoratum. Laud 155: L-Gk MOLOCHĒ AGRIA generally denotes wild Malva species (cf. André 1985, s.v. MOLOCHĒ), there is no connection to Asphodelus species: the equation ASTULA REGIA = MALOCHIN AGRIA seems to be an error as it is not recorded in any older texts. But the equation MUSGA hints at a possible connection of Galium and Malva species: MUSGA seems to be identical with L HERBA MUSCHATA (= G. odoratum), recorded in Cockayne (1962,III,349)[1]; cf. the G names Mösch, Mösecke, etc., which are related to ML MUSCUS 'musk, Moschus' and refer to the fragrant odor of the plant,[2] which can easily be associated with the fragrance of Malva moschata L., musk mallow, Moschusmalve (cf. Marzell 2000,III,31).

    Etymology: could the name be related to OE rōf 'famous, berühmt'? A lit. translation of the plant name would then be ‚the wood famous, die Waldberühmte; cf. NHG Waldmeister, ML MATRISYLVA, FR reine des bois (cf. Marzell 2000,1,470).

  • Comment on (B): Asphodelus L., asphodel, a species of ~, Affodil, eine Art von ~

    According to Förster (1917,128) ASTULA REGIE is often equated with ασφόδελος in L-Gk glossaries and therefore denotes an Asphodelus species. Also cf. Dur 15, 21, 36, 48, 230, 262 and esp. the note on Dur 15. The only argument against this identification could be the fact that the plant is a native to the Mediterranean, where it was frequently used for dietary and medical purposes, and is not known wild in England[3] whereas wudu- hints especially at a wild growing plant. Based on these facts we assume that the OE glossators did not know the meaning of ASPHODELUS or HASTULA REGIA and chose the gloss wudurofe because of its equation with MOLOCHE AGRIA (HA 52,8: ASTULA REGIA = MOLOCINAGRIAN). According to André (1985, s.v. HASTULA REGIA) this plant name can either be identified with an Asphodelus species or probably with Salvia sclarea L., clary, Muskatellersalbei. OSTRICIUM seems to be identical with OSTRIACA, OSTIRIACA, which are synonyms of MOLOCE AGRIA (HA 40,n.20). Hunger (1935,167), following Cockayne suggests Asphodelus ramosus L., branched asphodel, Ästiger Affodil, an identification which de Vriend (1984,269) wrongly attributes to Bierbaumer. Förster suggests that the name could denote a completely different bulbous plant.

    Etymology: the etymology of the primary word -rōfe is not clear; Förster (1917,129) assumes an original -hrōfe (also cf. note on Dur 15) but this is not conclusive. Maybe we should assume an original name wudurife (cf. LB 20/22) for G. odorata, a name which would perfectly suit this plant (cf. →hege-rife), and an original name wudurofe for Asphodelus or similar tubers (-rōfe = ‚turnip, Rübe'; cf. Holthausen 1974,s.v. rofe). Wudurife would have been transformed analog to wudurofe in Anglo-Saxon times, while hegerife was influenced by the name wuduroue in the Middle English period: cf. the name hayroue s.v. →hege-rife. In the end the process of alternately influencing morphemes is dominated by ō-forms as the variants for giþrife recorded in LA (gyþhrōfe, giþhrōfe) and the ME forms of OE hege-rife account for. Because there are three different forms (-rife, -rofe, hrofe), we have to assume folk-etymological influences.

↑ top

Occurrences Last Update: 02.03.2011 10:44

  • AntFö, 128,184 ASTULA REGIA wuderofe
  • C 71.2, Meritt 73b, 17 ASTULA REGIA wuderoue
  • Dur, 15 AFFODILLUS vudehofe[4]
  • Dur, 21 ALTILIA REGIA[5] vuderoue
  • Dur, 230 MALACHINA GRIA vuderofe
  • Dur, 262 OSTRIOLUM vuderofe
  • Dur, 36 APODILLIS[6] vuderoue UEL barapopig
  • Dur, 48 ASTULA REGIA vuderoue UEL barepopig[7]
  • HA, 132/6[8] nsg Wudu rofe
  • HA, 132/8f asg þe man astularegia 7 oþrum naman wudurofe nemneþ
  • HA, 136/8[9] nsg Wuduhrofe
  • HA, 156/11[10] asg þe grecas malochinagria 7 romane astularegia nemnaþ 7 eac ængle wudurofe hataþ
  • HA, 18/17[11] nsg astularegia ƀ is wudu rofe
  • HA, 26/1[12] nsg malochinagria ƀ ƀ is wudu rofe[13]
  • LA, 102/8f nsg wuduroue
  • LA, 110/15 nsg wudurofe
  • LA, 122/15 nsg wudurofe
  • LA, 170/28[14] asg wuduhrofan
  • LA, 194/15 gsg wuduhrofan
  • LB, 100/6 asg wudurofan
  • LB, 100/9 asg wudurofan
  • LB, 17/24 asg wudurofan
  • LB, 20/22[15] asg wudurifan
  • LB, 28/22[16] asg wudurofan
  • LB, 29/33 nsg wudurofe
  • LB, 33/26 asg wudurofan
  • LB, 8/16 asg wudurofan
  • LB, 99/15 asg wudurofan
  • LB, 99/38 asg wudurofan
↑ top

Etymology Last Update: 05.10.2011 11:20

  • Etymology: Etymology-Comment:
  • Word-Formation:
  • Word-Formation-Comment:
↑ top

Image Last Update: 05.10.2011 11:20

Galium odoratum (L.) Scop., woodruff, Waldmeister


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

↑ top

Research Literature

AntFö: Förster, Max. "Die altenglische Glossenhandschrift Plantinus 32 (Antwerpen) und Additional 32246 (London)." Anglia 41 (1917): 94-161.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
André, Jacques. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Société d'édition 'les belles lettres', 1985.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Britten, James, and Robert Holland. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names. London: Trübner, 1886.
Brodin, Gösta, (ed.). Agnus Castus. Edited with Introduction, Notes and Glossary. Essays and Studies on English Language and Literature 6. Uppsala: Almgvist & Wicksell, 1950.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Marzell, Heinrich. Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen. Mit Unterstützung der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bearb. von Heinrich Marzell. Unter Mitw. von Wilhelm Wissmann. Köln: Parkland, 2000.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. Old English Glosses. MLA General Series.16. Repr. New York: 1971.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 585.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius C iii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 6258b.
MS Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, Dc. 160+187+186+185.
MS Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Museum, 47.
MS London, British Library, Add. 32246.
MS Durham, Cathedral, Hunter 100.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Laud Misc. 567.
Olds, Barbara M.. The Anglo-Saxon Leechbook III: A Critical Edition and Translation. Diss. Univ. of Denver. 1985.
Pettit, Edward, (ed. and trans.). Anglo-Saxon Remedies, Charms and Prayers from British Library MS Harley 585: the 'Lacnunga'. Vol. I: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Appendices. Vol. II: Commentary and Bibliography. Mellen Critical Editions and Translations. 6A and 6B. Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Mellen, 2001.
Storms, Godfrid (ed.). Anglo-Saxon Magic. Reprint of the 1948 ed. published by M. Nijhoff, The Hague. Norwood, Pa: Norwood Editions, 1975.
Van Arsdall, Anne. Medieval Herbal Remedies. Illustrations by Robby Poore. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.
Varnhagen, Hermann. De Glossis Nonnullis Anglicis. Erlangen: Typis Friedrich Junge, 1902.
Wright, Cyril E. (ed.). Bald's Leechbook. Early English manuscripts in facsimile. 5. Kopenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1955.

"Woderoue, woodruff, ASPERULA ODORATA. "HERBA MUSCATA, HERBA CITRINA" Gl. Harl. 3388."


Marzell adds: "Gesner 1542 bezeichnet die Pfl. als "MUSCHETUM MINUS". Auch das frz. muguet "Waldmeister" [...] geht über afrz. muguete "Muskatnuß" auf MUSC "Moschus" zurück."


Cf. NED, s.v. affodill: "1. Name of a liliaceous genus of plants [...] natives of the South of Europe, and grown as garden flowers and medicinal herbs."


Lindheim: "lies wudu-hrōfe".


L. ASTULA REGIA; ALTILIA REGIA is not recorded as a plant name; L ALTILIS = "fat, fatted, fett, gemästet"; cf. C 2, Rit 107,10: ALTILIA hehfaro (ModE heifer).




Cf. s.v. popig.












MS H hrofe.


Glossed ASTULA REGIA by a hand of the 13th century.


Cf. plant names like hegerife, giþrife; but also cf. the etymological discussion.


Cockayne has wudu rosan.