Sambucus_ebulus

liþ-wyrt

noun, f., i-decl., 19 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 15.07.2011 09:36

Old-English: lithvyrt, liþwyrt, liþwvrt, lyþwyrt,

Latin (Machine generated): ERIFEON, ERIFION, ERIPHION, OSTRIAGO,

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Reference Last Update: 25.09.2020 14:06

Meanings Last Update: 15.07.2011 08:25

  • E: plant: introduced Probably by Romans (cf. http://www.englishplants.co.uk/grue.html).
    Galega officinalis L, goat's rue, Echte Geißraute
  • D: plant: native
    Galium L., bedstraw, a species of ~, Klebkraut, eine Art von ~
  • D: plant
    -, madder, a related plant like ~, Färberröte, eine verwandte Pflanze zur ~,
  • A: plant: native Doubtfully native (cf. Clapham 1962,787).
    ? Sambucus ebulus L., dwarf-elder, Attich
  • B: plant: native
    ? Viburnum L., wayfaring-tree, Schneeball
  • C: plant: foreign
    ?? Ruta L., rue, Raute
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Comments Last Update: 15.07.2011 08:29

  • Comment on (A): ? Sambucus ebulus L., dwarf-elder, Attich

    Cf. Dur, note 157; in Dur 84 Chamedafne leothvyrt UEL hrafnes fot the name →leoþo-wyrt also denotes S. ebulus L. because chamedafne (Gk χαμαι-δάφνη), lit. ' low laurel, niedriger Lorbeer', not only denotes Daphne species but several kinds of low shrubs (cf. CAMEDAPHNE cneowholen; cf.cnēow-holen),[1] and the name dwarf-elder, Zwergholunder clearly refers to the height of S. Ebulus L. The form →leoþo-wyrt and its phonetic explanation also supports our view. On other explanations cf. Dur 84. Cockayne (1961,II,398) and Hunger (1935,167) support this identification but base it on L OSTRIAGO.[2] If the glossator of Dur erred, we have to assume two plant names leoþu- (liþe-)wyrt and liþwyrt: as suggested s.v. →leoþowyrt the form leoþu- (replacing liþ-) is more frequent in compounds and an associative meaning 'flexible, biegsam' has to be assumed (cf. ClH, s.v.: leoþubīqe 'flexible, yielding'; leoþuwāc 'with supple limbs, flexible').

  • Comment on (B): ? Viburnum L., wayfaring-tree, Schneeball

    Britten / Holland (1886,310) attempt an identification based on the ModE plant name: "Lithe-wort. An A.S. plant-name about which there seems to be some confusion [...] Prior (p.136) has Lithy-tree, which we have not elsewhere met with, as a name for Viburnum lantana L., and this may be a form of the same name." The spelling lithe- in Britten / Holland seems to indicate that these authors presume a long vowel, therefore the identification is not valid. Bosworth / Toller (s.v.) and von Lindheim also indicate a long vowel and suggest that līþ- originates from a compensatory lengthening after nasal loss (cf. Pinsker 1974, §19,4 and Schmitt 1908,104) from Proto Germanic *linþ- but the occurrences LB 40/14 and 40/23 clearly indicate that liþwyrt lit. 'limb wort, Gliedwurz is related to OE liþ, 'limb, joint; Glied, Gelenk' and therefore has a short vowel. Liþwyrt could be named after its use for rheumatic pains or arthralgiae; in the NED (s.v. lithwort) OE liþwyrt is related to liþ. The description 'flexible, biegsam' as suggested in our explanation on identificatin A also suits V. lantana.[3] D'Aronco (1998,50) refutes this identification on the basis that this plant was not used for medicinal purposes; Grieve (s.v. Guelder Rose) only lists V. opulus.

  • Comment on (C): ?? Ruta L., rue, Raute

    According to Hunger (1935,168) the identification of ERIFION in HA, Ch. CXXVII (i.e. Ruta hortensis) is not secure; also cf. Laud 551, and WW 299/2 and the gloss ERIPHION liþwyrt from British Library Cotton Otho E.i. (Meritt 1961,446). In Laud 601 ERIFION is synonymous with RUTA ORTENSIS, which denotes R. graveolens (cf. Fischer 2001,282). Also cf. André (1985, s.v. ERIPHION), who suggests R. montana / R. chalepensis and R. graveolens as possible identifications. The description provided in HA CXXVII does not match any Ruta species (the text describes red flowers and seeds like beans) and there is no obvious connection between rue and S. ebulus. D'Aronco (1998,56) and Van Arsdall (2002,203) suggest Ruta chalepensis L., Gefranste Raute.

  • Comment on (D): -, madder, a related plant like ~, Färberröte, eine verwandte Pflanze zur ~,

    André (1956, s.v.) identifies OSTRIAGO with Rubia tinctorum L.: "ostriago [...] plante qui devait donner un colorant rouge. Ostriago est glose liþwyrt en vieli anglais [...] à rapprocher de alld dial. Lidwurzel 'garance' [='Färberröte'] [...] v. rubea 1."[4] Marzell connects the name to Galium mollugo[5] which is akin to R. tinctorum (Marzell, 2000,2,579f): "lidewrtz 'SPERENTILLA' ahd Gl. 3,472,21 (11.Jh.); lidwrtz 'SPERENTILLA' ebd. 3,521,16 (14./15.3h.). Das Lemma scheint eine Galium-Art zu bezeichnen. Fischer, Pflkde 270 deutet SPERENTILLA als G. verum, vgl. auch Diefenb. 546a. lid wrcze 'RUBEA' 15.3h.: Diefenb., Nov.gloss. 320b lidwurtz 'RUBEA' 1438 Ebinger 102. Zu ahd. lith, lid 'Glied, Gelenk'." Also cf. G names like Gliedkraut, Gliederkraut, Glidlichrut, etc. (Marzell, ibid).

  • Comment on (D): Galium L., bedstraw, a species of ~, Klebkraut, eine Art von ~

    The name, lit. 'limb wort, Gliedwurz', refers to the stalks of the plant which are strongly devided and which, signatura rerum, is frequently used against rheumatic illnesses (cf. Marzell 2000,2,580, s.v. Ga­lium mollugo).

  • Comment on (E): Galega officinalis L, goat's rue, Echte Geißraute

    De Vriend (1984, 295) notes that an identification is very difficult: the drawings for XXIX in Mss. V, Ca, Ha do not depict Sambucus ebulus "whereas the illustrations of XCIII are a fair representation of Sambucus ebulus", for XXIX he suggests V. lantana (D'Aronco 1998,50: Rubia tinctorum). For CXXVII (1984,317) he suggests G. officinalis L. and explains that the description in Grieve (1971,s.v. rue, goat's) correspondents with the drawings in the manuscripts; the name ERIFION (ἒριφος ‚young goat’) is a striking parallel to goat’s rue.

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Occurrences Last Update: 23.02.2010 09:09

  • Br,WW, 299,2 ERIFEON lithvyrt IDEM EST OSTRIAGO
  • Br,WW, 302,3 OSTRIAGO liþwyrt
  • ClSt, O 219 OSTRIAGO liþwyrt
  • D 11, f.12v, col.3 OSTRIAGO liþwyrt
  • D 11, Meritt 1961, X/21[6] ERIPHION liþwyrt
  • Dur, 157 ERIFEON lithvyrt
  • Dur, 263 OSTRIAGO lithvyrt
  • HA, 124/13[7] nsg Lyþwyrt
  • HA, 124/14f[8] asg þe man ostriago 7 oþrum naman lyþwyrt nemneþ
  • HA, 16/18[9] nsg ostriago ƀ is liþwyrt
  • HA, 238/11[10] nsg Liþwyrt
  • HA, 238/12[11] asg þe man erifion. 7 oþrum naman liþwyrt nemneþ[12]
  • HA, 48/13[13] nsg erifion ƀ is lyþ wyrt
  • LA, 110/14 nsg liþwyrt
  • Laud, 551 ERIFION liþwvrt
  • LB, 14/14[14] nasg leoþowyrt
  • LB, 40/14 nasg liþwyrt
  • LB, 40/23 nasg liþwyrt
  • LB, 90/13 nasg liþwyrt
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Images Last Update: 15.07.2011 09:36

? Sambucus ebulus L., dwarf-elder, Attich

Sambucus_ebulus

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Fitch, Walter Hood. Illustrations of the British Flora: London: Reeve, 1924.

?? Ruta L., rue, Raute

Ruta_graveolens_bd3_tafel_006

Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

Galega officinalis L, goat's rue, Echte Geißraute

Galega_officinalis_bd3_tafel_121
Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

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Research Literature

Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BTS: Toller, Thomas Northcote. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Nachdruck der Ausgabe von: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
BT: Bosworth, Joseph. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Ed. by Thomas Northcote Toller. Reprint 1973. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1882.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
ClH: Clark Hall, John Richard. A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 4th ed. MART 14. Cambridge: University Press, 1960.
ClSt: Stryker, William Garlington. The Latin-Old English Glossary in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Unpubl. diss. Stanford Univ.: 1952.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
André, Jacques. Les noms de plantes dans la Rome antique. Paris: Société d'édition 'les belles lettres', 1985.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Britten, James, and Robert Holland. A Dictionary of English Plant-Names. London: Trübner, 1886.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Glossaries in London, BL, Cotton Cleopatra A. iii." In: _Mittelalterliche volkssprachige Glossen: Internationale Fachkonferenz des Zentrums für Mittelalterstudien der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg 2. bis 4. August 1999._ Ed. Rolf Bergmann, Elvira Glaser, and Claudine Moulin-Fankhänel. Heidelberg: Winter, 2001. 189-215.
Marzell, Heinrich. Wörterbuch der deutschen Pflanzennamen. Mit Unterstützung der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bearb. von Heinrich Marzell. Unter Mitw. von Wilhelm Wissmann. Köln: Parkland, 2000.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. "Old English Glosses, Mostly Dry Point." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 60 (1961): 441-450.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 585.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius C iii.
MS London, British Library, Harley 6258b.
MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1828-30.
MS Durham, Cathedral, Hunter 100.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Cleopatra A.iii.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Otho E.i.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Laud Misc. 567.
Pettit, Edward, (ed. and trans.). Anglo-Saxon Remedies, Charms and Prayers from British Library MS Harley 585: the 'Lacnunga'. Vol. I: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Appendices. Vol. II: Commentary and Bibliography. Mellen Critical Editions and Translations. 6A and 6B. Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter: Mellen, 2001.
Pinsker, Hans Ernst. Historische englische Grammatik. 4.Aufl. München: Hueber, 1974.
Rusche, Philip Guthrie. The Cleopatra Glossaries. Diss. Yale Univ. Yale University, 1996.
Schmitt, Lorenz. Lautliche Untersuchung der Sprache des Læceboc. Bonn: Hanstein, 1908.
Storms, Godfrid (ed.). Anglo-Saxon Magic. Reprint of the 1948 ed. published by M. Nijhoff, The Hague. Norwood, Pa: Norwood Editions, 1975.
Van Arsdall, Anne. Medieval Herbal Remedies. Illustrations by Robby Poore. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.
Voss, Manfred. "Strykers Edition des alphabetischen Cleopatraglossars: Corrigenda und Addenda." AAA 13:2 (1988): 123-138.
Voss, Manfred. "Altenglische Glossen aus MS Brit. Library, Cotton Otho E.i." AAA 22:2 (1996): 179-203.
Wright, Cyril E. (ed.). Bald's Leechbook. Early English manuscripts in facsimile. 5. Kopenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1955.
[1]:

A misspelling of GK χαμαιάκτη, lit. "low elder, niedriger Holunder; earth elder, Erdholunder", as suggested by Cockayne (1961,II,398) could also be possible.

[2]:

Cockayne (1961,2,398):""CHAMEDAPHNE, leoth vyrt," Gl. Dun., read χαμαιάκτη, that is, ground elder. "EBULUS, wallwort", in later hand "lythe wort", MS. Harl. 3388." Cockayne (1961,3,336): "The viburnum lantana, lithe and pliant, "LENTA INTA VIBURNA," called marsh elder (Lyte p.889), its kindred OPULUS easily being confused with EBULUS, may however be the true equivalent." A totally different explanation can be based on the fact that in the HA OSTRIAGO (ch. XXIX) immediately follows CHAMEDAPHNE (ch. XVIII) and a glossary based on this text would copy this model (i.e. CHAMEDAPHNE hræfnesfot; OSTRIAGO leoþwyrt); during the process of alphabetical reordering the glossator of Dur could have shortened the gloss to CHAMEDAPHNE leothwyrt UEL hrafnesfot. Was this the case, liþwyrt would have no connection to S. ebulus.

[3]:

The name of the species Lantana is related to L LENTUS "flexible, stringly, tardy; biegsam, zähe, langsam" and refers to the flexible branches of V. lantana (cf. Genaust 2005, s.v. Lantana).

[4]:

André lists L RUBEA and Punic SARAMURIS (Howald/Sigerist 1927,28,n.6) as synonyms of OSTRIAGO.

[5]:

G. mollugo contains red dye like R. tinctorum.

[6]:

ERIPHION liþwyrt occurs two times on fol. 5v, col. 4 of D 11.

[7]:

Ch. XXIX.

[8]:

Ch. XXIX.

[9]:

Ch. XXIX.

[10]:

Ch. CXXVII.

[11]:

Ch. CXXVII.

[12]:

Cont.: heo haeþ merces gelicnysse 7 keo hafaþ blostman readne swylce caerse 7 heo hafaþ seofon wyrttruman 7 swa fela stelena [...] 7 heo byth ælcon timan blowende 7 heo hafaþ sæd swylce beana.

[13]:

Ch. CXXVII.

[14]:

On the quantity of the -i- (short vowel) cf. the etym. explanation in the comment on Viburnum L.; ad LB 14/14: also cf. s.v. leoþowyrt.