noun, m., a-decl., 33 occ.

Type: plant

Last Update: 11.08.2011 12:12

Old-English: gallac, galoc, galluc, galloc, galluces,


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Meanings Last Update: 23.05.2011 13:13

  • A: plant: native
    Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell
  • B: plant: native Today: Mainly from the Orient. European countries also furnish oak galls, e. g., England, Germany, Italy, but these are decidedly inferior in the amount of tannin they contain. (
    ? Gallae quercinae, gallnut, Gallapfel
  • C: plant: foreign Native to the Mediterranean, cultivated as crop (esp. Lupinus albus L.) Probably not introduced to W-EU before the 16th cent. Some information:
    ? Lupinus L., lupin, a species of ~, Lupine, eine Art von ~
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Comments Last Update: 15.10.2009 11:37

  • Comment on (A): Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell

    Cf. BTC, s.v. galluc, and Förster (1917,126); also Hunger (1935,167): LXI: SIMPHITUM = S. officinale. Based on the context this is the only possible identification for the LA.[1]

  • Comment on (B): ? Gallae quercinae, gallnut, Gallapfel

    Cf. Förster (n. on AntFö 126,176): "Wenn […] galloc […] das lat. GALLA 'gallapfel' glossiert, so ist schwer zu sagen, ob das eine durch die ähnlichkeit des wortklanges veranlaßte fehlübersetzung ist, oder ob der glossator in vollem Verständnis für die bedeutung des lateinischen wortes eine anglisierung desselben mittelst des ae. Suffixes -oc wählte." If the second assumption was true, we would have to assume two lemmata, to be differentiated etymologically and with regard to meaning (cf. ibid.).

    ADRIATICA cannot be verifyed as plant name[2]; MALUM TERRAE does not suit our meanings A-C and neither does it go with →elehtre.

  • Comment on (C): ? Lupinus L., lupin, a species of ~, Lupine, eine Art von ~

    Cf. BTC, s.v. galluc, and Förster (1917,126).

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Occurrences Last Update: 04.11.2010 06:51

  • AntFö, 126, 176 ADRIATICA galluc ł MALUM TERRE
  • Br,WW, 298,1 GALLA galloc
  • Br,WW, 299,20 SINFITUM gallac
  • C 28, Na 56, 388 ADRIACA galluc
  • C 71.2, Meritt 73a, 4[3] CONFIRIE .I. galluc
  • ClSt, G 41 GALLA galluc
  • ClSt, M 381 MALUM TERRA galloc
  • Cp, 969(G 7) GALLA galluc
  • D 11, f.9r, col.2 GALLA galluc
  • Dur, 129 CONFIRMA galluc
  • Dur, 13 ADRIATICA galluc
  • Dur, 179 GALBA galloc
  • Dur, 229 MALUM TERRE galluc UEL elechtre
  • Dur, 313 SUMPHITUM galluc
  • Ep, 466 GALLA galluc
  • Erf, 466 GALLA galluc
  • HA, LX, 162/11 galluc CONFIRMA
  • HA, LX, 162/11 asg þe man CONFIRMAN 7 oþrum naman galluc nemneþ
  • HA, LX, 162/9 nsg Galluc
  • HA, LX, 26/18 nsg CONFIRMA ƀ is galluc
  • LA, 100/26[4] gsg galluces
  • LA, 166/15[5] nsg galluc
  • Laud, 162 ADRIACA.I. CONFIRMA UEL galloc
  • Laud, 345 CONFIRMA Galluc
  • LB, 109/28 nasg galluc
  • LB, 109/31 nasg galluc
  • LB, 18/40 nasg galluc
  • LB, 21/35 nasg galluc
  • LB, 23/18 nasg galluc
  • LB, 25/3 nasg galluc
  • LB, 29/11 nasg galluc
  • Med 2 (Torkar) (B21.2.3), 2.2 Nim galluc
  • Æ, 310,14 ADRIACA galluc
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Etymology Last Update: 11.08.2011 12:12

  • Etymology: Etymology-Comment:
  • Word-Formation:
  • Word-Formation-Comment:
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Image Last Update: 11.08.2011 12:12

Symphytum officinale L., common comfrey, Arznei-Beinwell


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

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Research Literature

AldVNa: Napier, Arthur Sampson. Old English Glosses. Anecdota Oxoniensia, Mediaeval and Modern Series. 11. Reprint of Oxford, Clarendon Press 1900. Hildesheim: Olms, 1969.
AntFö: Förster, Max. "Die altenglische Glossenhandschrift Plantinus 32 (Antwerpen) und Additional 32246 (London)." Anglia 41 (1917): 94-161.
Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BTC: Campbell, Alistair (ed.). An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Revised and Enlarged Addenda to the Supplement by T. N. Toller. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
BTS: Toller, Thomas Northcote. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Nachdruck der Ausgabe von: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
BT: Bosworth, Joseph. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Ed. by Thomas Northcote Toller. Reprint 1973. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1882.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW II: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 2. Bern, Frankfurt am Main, München: Lang, 1976.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
ClSt: Stryker, William Garlington. The Latin-Old English Glossary in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Unpubl. diss. Stanford Univ.: 1952.
Cp: Hessels, John Henry. An Eighth-Century Latin Anglo-Saxon Glossary. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1890.
Cp: Lindsay, Wallace Martin. The Corpus Glossary. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1921.
Cp: Wynn, J. B. An Edition of the Anglo-Saxon Corpus Glosses. Unpubl. Diss. Oxford: 1961.
DOE: Cameron, Angus, Ashley Crandell Amos, Antonette di Paolo Healey, et al. (eds.). Dictionary of Old English (A to G). CD-Rom. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies for the Dictionary of Old English Project, 2008.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
Ep, Erf: Pheifer, J.D. (ed.). Old English Glosses in the Epinal-Erfurt Glossary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974.
Ep: Brown, Alan Kelsey. The Epinal Glossary edited with Critical Commentary of the Vocabulary. Vol. I: Edition. Vol. II: Commentary. Diss., Stanford University. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1969.
HA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Herbarium Apuleii Platonici." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 1. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 1-325.
LA, Lor: Grattan, John Henry Grafton, and Charles Singer. Anglo-Saxon Magic and Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1952.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LA: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "[Lacnunga] Recipies." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 3. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Holland Press, 1961. 2-81.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
Berberich, Hugo, ed. Das Herbarium Apuleii nach einer früh-mittelenglischen Fassung. Anglistische Forschungen 5. Nachdruck Amsterdam, 1966. Heidelberg: Winter, 1902.
Bischoff, Bernard, et al. (eds.).. The Épinal, Erfurt, Werden and Corpus Glossaries. Early English manuscripts in facsimile 22. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1988.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia and M. L. Cameron, eds.. The Old English Illustrated Pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius C.III. Early English Manuscripts in Faksimile 27. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1998.
D'Aronco, Maria Amalia. "Inglese antico 'galluc'." Naples: , 1985. 83-100.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
DeVriend, Hubert Jan (ed.). The 'Old English Herbarium' and 'Medicina de Quadrupedibus'. Early English Text Society. Original series 286. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Grein, Christian-Wilhelm-Michael (ed.). Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie. Göttingen: Wigand, 1864.
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hilbelink, A.J.G. (ed.). Cotton MS Vitellius C III of the Herbarium Apuleii. Diss. Amsterdam: 1930.
Howald, Ernestus und Henricus Sigerist (eds.). Corpus Medicorum Latinorum. Bd.4. Antonii Musae de Herba Vettonica Liber. Pseudoapulei Herbarius. Anonymi de Taxone Liber. Sexti Placiti Liber Medicinae ex Animalibus etc. Leipzig: Teubner, 1927.
Hunger, Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias (ed.). The Herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius. From the ninth-century manuscript in the abbey of Monte Cassino [Codex Casinen-sis 97] together with the first printed edition of Jon. Phil. de Lignamine [Editio princeps Romae 1481] both in facsimile, described and annotated by F.W.T. Hunger. Leyden: Brill, 1935.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Glossaries in London, BL, Cotton Cleopatra A. iii." In: _Mittelalterliche volkssprachige Glossen: Internationale Fachkonferenz des Zentrums für Mittelalterstudien der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg 2. bis 4. August 1999._ Ed. Rolf Bergmann, Elvira Glaser, and Claudine Moulin-Fankhänel. Heidelberg: Winter, 2001. 189-215.
Lindsay, Wallace Martin. Corpus, Épinal, Erfurt and Leyden Glossaries. Publications of the Philological Society VIII. London: Oxford University Press, 1921.
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Förster: "Symphytum officinale [...] ist auch sicher gemeint in einem ags. rezepte (Leechdoms III 6,10), da dort ausdrücklich von der wurzelrübe der pflanze (galluces moran) die rede ist." On Förster"s note cf. Laud 162 and the respective note.


The DOE, s.v. regard it as an "otherwise unattested HADRIATICA ‘? comfrey’".


N.: "Cf. CUMFIRIA.I. galloc, WW 555,4."


Cont.: galluces moran.


Cont.: gif man sceorpe on þone innaþ: galluc hatte; delf [þa moran] wiþ eagena teara; cf. Grattan / Singer (1951,166,n.5): "There is clearly some omission here, as C noted; but the MS. gives no indication of it. Neither C nor L observes that the corruption has extended to the following lines: the words þa moran, which follow win two lines below in the MS., have been misplaced. The emended text remains incomplete." Cf. Cockayne (1962,III,44/28): "galluc hatte […] delf […] wiþ eagena teara"; amend wyrt after hatte: cf. for instance LB 6/24 murra hatte wyrt.