noun, m., a-decl., 26 occ.

Possible Types: plant-product, plant

Last Update: 30.08.2011 07:18

Old-English: pang, thung, þung,


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References Last Update: 16.06.2022 05:39

Meanings Last Update: 29.08.2011 10:41

  • A: plant-product
    -, poison, Gift
  • B: plant: native
    Aconitum napellus L., monk's hood, Blauer Eisenhut
  • C: plant: foreign
    Veratrum album L., white veratrum, Weißer Germer
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Comment Last Update: 29.08.2011 10:49

  • Comment on (A): -, poison, Gift

    Cf. Hoops (1889,83f), who discusses þung in great detail as sample entry for his projected but never conducted dictionary of Old English plant names. Deegan (1988: 283) erroneously records 'false hellebore' for Bierbaumer (1975,135).

    Etymology: cf. Hoops (1889,84) and Pokorny (1989,I,1068, s.v. tank-).

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Occurrences Last Update: 03.12.2010 06:10

  • AntK, 117,10 ACONITA þung
  • Br,WW, 296,16 COXA[1] þung
  • Br,WW, 296,17 ACONITA þung
  • Br,WW, 299,17 TOXA þung
  • C 71.2, Meritt 73c, 8 SOLE[2] thunge
  • ClQu, 59,10 TOXI[3] pang
  • ClSt, E 25 ELLEBORUS wedeberge, þung
  • ClSt, M 384 MANDRAGINA[4] þung
  • Cp, 48(A 102) ACONITO[5] þungas
  • Cp, 755(E 120) ELEBORUS þung, woedeberge
  • Dur, 12 ACONITA thung
  • Dur, 135 COXA[6] thung
  • Dur, 148 ELLEBORUS vedeberige UEL thung
  • Dur, 64 BOTRATION clufthunge UEL thung
  • Ep, 23 ACONITA thungas
  • Erf, 23[7] ACONITA thungas
  • Laud, 1441 TOXA þung
  • Laud, 6 ACONIT þung
  • LB, 101/31 gsg þunges
  • LB, 22/9 dsg þunge
  • LB, 25/2[8] asg þung
  • LB, 46/13[9] asg þung
  • LB, 46/14[10] nsg þung
  • LB, 46/26 asg þone miclan þung
  • LB, 81/10 gsg þunges
  • LB, 98/32 asg þung
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Etymology Last Update: 30.08.2011 07:18

  • Etymology: Etymology-Comment:
  • Word-Formation:
  • Word-Formation-Comment:
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Images Last Update: 30.08.2011 07:18

Aconitum napellus L., monk's hood, Blauer Eisenhut


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

Veratrum album L., white veratrum, Weißer Germer


Botanical-Information: stylised plate

Source: →reference-information

Thomé, Otto Wilhelm. Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. In 4 Mappen ; 531 Tafeln in naturgetreuen Farben mit 668 Pflanzenarten. Leipzip: Teubner, 1938.

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Research Literature

AntK: Kindschi, Lowell. The Latin-Old English Glossaries in Planton-Moretus Manuscript 43 and British Museum Manuscript Additional 32,246. Unpubl. diss. Stanford University: 1955.
Br: Logeman, Henri. "Zu Wright-Wülker I, 204-303." Archiv 85 (1890): 316-318.
BW I: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 1. Bern, Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 1975.
BW III: Bierbaumer, Peter. Der botanische Wortschatz des Altenglischen. Grazer Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 3. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, 1979.
ClQu: Quinn, John Joseph. The Minor Latin-Old English Glossaries in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Diss Stanford U. 1956.
ClSt: Stryker, William Garlington. The Latin-Old English Glossary in MS Cotton Cleopatra A III. Unpubl. diss. Stanford Univ.: 1952.
Cp: Hessels, John Henry. An Eighth-Century Latin Anglo-Saxon Glossary. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1890.
Cp: Lindsay, Wallace Martin. The Corpus Glossary. Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1921.
Cp: Wynn, J. B. An Edition of the Anglo-Saxon Corpus Glosses. Unpubl. Diss. Oxford: 1961.
Dur: Lindheim, B. von. Das Durhamer Pflanzenglossar. Beiträge zur englischen Philologie. 35. Bochum-Langendreer: Pöppinghaus, 1941.
Ep, Erf: Pheifer, J.D. (ed.). Old English Glosses in the Epinal-Erfurt Glossary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974.
Ep: Brown, Alan Kelsey. The Epinal Glossary edited with Critical Commentary of the Vocabulary. Vol. I: Edition. Vol. II: Commentary. Diss., Stanford University. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1969.
Laud: Stracke, J. Richard (ed.). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974.
LB: Cockayne, Oswald Thomas (ed.). "Leech Book." In: Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England. Being a Collection of Documents, for the Most Part never before Printed, Illustrating the History of Sience in this Country before the Norman Conquest. Vol. 2. Rev. Ed. by Charles Singer. London: Longman [et. al.], 1961. 1-360.
LB: Leonhardi, Günther. Kleinere angelsächsische Denkmäler I. Bibliothek der ags. Prosa VI. Hamburg: Grand, 1905.
WW, Prosp, Br: Wright, Thomas. Anglo-Saxon and Old English Vocabularies. 2nd ed. by Richard Paul Wülcker. Reprint of the 1884 ed. published by Trübner, London. Vol. 1: Vocabularies. Vol. 2: Indices. New York: Gordon, 1976.
Bischoff, Bernard, et al. (eds.).. The Épinal, Erfurt, Werden and Corpus Glossaries. Early English manuscripts in facsimile 22. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1988.
Deegan, Marilyn. A Critical Edition of MS. B.L. Royal 12.D.XVII: Bald's 'Leechbook'. Diss. Univ. of Manchester. 1988.
: Hall, Alaric. Madness, Medication - and Self-Induced Hallucination? Elleborus (and Woody Nightshade) in Anglo-Saxon England, 700–900. . 2008. .
Hankins, Freda Richards. Bald's 'Leechbook' Reconsidered. Diss. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
Hoops, Johannes. Über die altenglischen Pflanzennamen. Diss. Freiburg im Breisgau: 1889.
Lendinara, Patrizia. "The Glossaries in London, BL, Cotton Cleopatra A. iii." In: _Mittelalterliche volkssprachige Glossen: Internationale Fachkonferenz des Zentrums für Mittelalterstudien der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg 2. bis 4. August 1999._ Ed. Rolf Bergmann, Elvira Glaser, and Claudine Moulin-Fankhänel. Heidelberg: Winter, 2001. 189-215.
Lindsay, Wallace Martin. Corpus, Épinal, Erfurt and Leyden Glossaries. Publications of the Philological Society VIII. London: Oxford University Press, 1921.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. Old English Glosses. MLA General Series.16. Repr. New York: 1971.
MS London, British Library, Royal 12 D.xvii.
MS Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, Dc. 160+187+186+185.
MS Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Museum, 47.
MS London, British Library, Add. 32246.
MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale, 1828-30.
MS Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 144.
MS Durham, Cathedral, Hunter 100.
MS Epinal, Bibliotheque Municipale, 72.
MS London, British Library, Cotton Cleopatra A.iii.
MS Oxford, Bodleian, Laud Misc. 567.
MS Erfurt, Wissenschaftliche Allgemeinbibliothek, Amplonianus F.42.
Olds, Barbara M.. The Anglo-Saxon Leechbook III: A Critical Edition and Translation. Diss. Univ. of Denver. 1985.
Pokorny, Julius. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2 Bde., 2. Auflage. Bern u.a.: Francke, 1989.
Rusche, Philip Guthrie. The Cleopatra Glossaries. Diss. Yale Univ. Yale University, 1996.
Sauer, Hans. "Old English Plant-Names in the Epinal-Erfurt Glossary: Etymology, Word-Formation and Semantics." In: _Words, Lexemes, Concepts - approaches to the lexicon. Studies in honour of Leonhard Lipka._ Ed. Wolfgang Falkner and Hans-Jörg Schmidt. Tübingen: Narr, 1999. 23-38.
Varnhagen, Hermann. De Glossis Nonnullis Anglicis. Erlangen: Typis Friedrich Junge, 1902.
Voss, Manfred. "Strykers Edition des alphabetischen Cleopatraglossars: Corrigenda und Addenda." AAA 13:2 (1988): 123-138.
Voss, Manfred. "Quinns Edition der kleineren Cleopatraglossare: Corrigenda und Addenda." AAA 14:2 (1989): 127-139.
Wright, Cyril E. (ed.). Bald's Leechbook. Early English manuscripts in facsimile. 5. Kopenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1955.

L. reads TOXA.


Maybe a corrupted SOLANUM or SOLATA, Solanum nigrum L.


N.: "Read TOXA or TOXICUM. As BTS suggests, the gloss seems to be an erroneous þung, "a poisonous plant"". Also cf. Sievers (1891,324) and Rusche (1996,688).




Wynn emends to ACONITA.


L. reads TOXA.


The lemma is not readable.


L. reads þungompre; but we should read þung, ompre analog to 98/32 þung 7 ompran.


Cf. note on LB, 46/14.


Cont: Gif mon þung ete, aþege buteran 7 drince; se þung gewit on þa buteran. In this instance þung probably means "poison, Gift" rather than denoting a specific plant.